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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2012 г. / № 4 (English)

Number 4, 2012

Amphorae production in Abkhazia in Hellenistic and Roman times
Vnukov S.Yu.

Fractional dating of the kurgans at Brut 1 cemetery (North Ossetia)
Gabuev T.A., Khokhlova O.S.

Rus-Byzantine contexts of the medieval discoveries in Chełm and Stołpie (southeastern Poland)
Buko A.

In Memory of N.Ya. Merpert

Mesopotamian-Caucasian connections in the 4th–3d millennia BC
Munchaev R.M., Amirov Sh.N.

Eneolithic cemetery at Tell Yunatsite: issues of interpretation
Balabina V.I., Mishina T.N.

Symbolics of the grave goods from Maykop kurgan and the cult of Inanna-Ishtar
Korenevsky S.N.

Skull modeling in the Levant in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Kornienko T.V.

Works of Young Scientists on the Middle Ages

Dating of the chamber burial in kurgan 348 at Timeryovo necropolis
Zozulya S.S.

Bolshoye Davydovskoye 2 medieval settlement near Suzdal
Fedorina A.N., Krasnikova A.M.

Forged pieces from Krutik medieval settlement
Kashintsev A.Yu.

Chronology of the locks and keys from medieval Novgorod (based on the materials from Nerevsky excavation site)
Kudryavtsev A.A.

Glazed jars of Byzantine origin from Samosdelka site
Boldyreva E.M.

Textiles from Mari and Mordva burials, 16th–19th cc. (based on the materials from the State Historical Museum)
Pavlova N.A.

Discussions

Rescue archaeology in Russia (to the 40th anniversary of the Rescue Excavations Department)
Engovatova A.V.

Publications

New find of a stamped Byzantine silver vessel in Eastern Europe
Rodinkova V.E.

History of Science

To the 100th anniversary of the 15th Archaeological Congress in Novgorod
Gaidukov P.G., Gervais N.N.

N.Ya. Merpert tells of V.A. Gorodtsov (interview from April 9, 2010)
Belozerova I.V., Kuzminykh S.V.

Critics and Bibliography

Against subjective interpretations in antique studies
Koshelenko G.A.

A.I. Kubyshev, S.S. Bessonova, N.V. Kovalev. The Bratoluybovsky mound. Kiev, 2009.
V.A. Romashko, S.A. Skoryi. Bliznets-2: Scythian aristocratic mound in the Dnieper right-bank Nadporozhye. Dnepropetrovsk, 2009.
Guliaev V.I.

Chronicle

To the jubilee of Marina Dmitrievna Poluboyarinova
Valiulina S.I., Koval V.Yu., Kokorina N.A., Kuzina I.N.

To the jubilee of Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kuznetsov
Albegova Z.Kh., Afanasyev G.E., Korobov D.S.

To the jubilee of Rimma Dmitrievna Goldina
Melnichuk A.F., Chernykh E.M.

Our jubilee
Kashkin A.V.

Our journal’s 55th anniversary
Beliaev L.A.

List of abbreviations

Author index, 2012


Summaries

Amphorae production in Abkhazia in Hellenistic and Roman times
Vnukov S.Yu.

Key words: Abkhazia, Dioskurias-Sebastopolis, amphorae production, “brown clay” amphorae, amphorae production centers, amphorae typology.
The article studies the morphology, chronology and composition of the clay mass of Classical “brown clay” amphorae and identifies the vessels that could have been manufactured in Abkhazia. The author lists the specific features of the clay mass and the technologies of the Abkhazian amphorae, identifies new varieties of Late Roman vessels, and gives a preliminary outline of their chronology and evolution. The amphorae that were manufactured in Abkhazia (in Dioskurias-Sebastopolis for instance) in Hellenistic and Roman times had specific technological and compositional features, and were similar in shape to contemporaneous vessels from other regions within the East and Southeast Pontic area.

Fractional dating of the kurgans at Brut 1 cemetery (North Ossetia)
Gabuev T.A., Khokhlova O.S.

Key words: Alans, North Caucasus, kurgans, catacomb burials, chronology, buckles, paleosoils.
Brut I kurgan cemetery with catacomb burials dates to the late 4th – middle of the 5th cc. AD, i.e. it functioned for 60–70 years at the most. For the fractional chronology we used the kurgans (No 2, 7, 9–14) where soil samples were taken. Pedologists assigned the kurgans to relative chronological groups: first group (kurgan 13), second group (kurgans 7, 12, 14), and third group (kurgans 2, 9, 10, 11). Archaeological data (fibulae and buckles) provides the absolute dates. The fibulae allow dating kurgan 13 to late 4th – early 5th cc. AD. The two other periods within the single time interval (first half of the 5th century) had not been identified previously.
The fractional dating was based on the buckles. Analysis of the buckles, the microdetails of the other artifacts in the assemblage and the constructional elements of the catacombs confirmed the conclusions of pedologists that the 5th-century materials could be divided into two chronological horizons. Kurgans 2 and 7 can be considered as benchmarks for their respective groups. Comparison of natural scientific and archaeological data shows that the identification of the chronological groups is methodologically correct.

Rus-Byzantine contexts of the medieval discoveries in Chełm and Stołpie (southeastern Poland)
Buko A.

Key words: Byzantine, Poland, Rus, medieval town, monastery, architecture, building technique, towers, manufacture.
The article summarizes the information about 13th-century monuments in the borderlands of Old Rus and Poland. It publishes the archaeological data from excavations at Chełm and Stołpie, including the palace and the stone tower on a high platform, which the author interprets as a monastery. The architecture, building technique and the finds show that the influence of the Rus-Byzantine culture on the technologies and the artistic tastes was quite strong. The monuments flourished vividly yet briefly under Prince Daniil Romanovich, when Chełm became the capital of the Principality of Galich.

Mesopotamian-Caucasian connections in the 4th–3d millennia BC
Munchaev R.M., Amirov Sh.N.

Key words: Mesopotamia, Caucasus, connections, 4th-3rd millennium BC, Leilatepe culture, Kura-Araxes and Maikop cultures.
The article tells of the connections between Mesopotamia and the Caucasus in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, when the powerful cultural impact of the ancient civilization reached the Kura-Araxes and Maikop cultures through the Leilatepe culture of Transcaucasia. On the other hand, the article investigates the earliest spreading of kurgan burial rites from the North Caucasus to Transcaucasia and the Near East.

Eneolithic cemetery at Tell Yunatsite: issues of interpretation
Balabina V.I., Mishina T.N.

Key words: Eneolithic, Thracia, Tell Yunatsite, cemetery, burial, burial rite, chronostratigraphy, planigraphy, demography.
The article considers the specific features of the evolution of the Eneolithic cemetery at Tell Yunatsite, its chronostratigraphy, demography, planigraphy and details of the rite. The stratigraphy of the burials can be ascertained through correlating their depth with the ground surface of the destroyed settlement (on the basis of sections and floors of buildings). Comparison of the demography of the cemetery and of the destroyed settlement has demonstrated uniformity of population. The disproportionate sex-age structure of the cemetery can only be explained through the hypothesis of its long-lasting existence. The variations of placing and position of the bodies at Yunatsite can also be observed at other cemeteries. The alignment of the bodies does not indicate any specific features of Yunatsite as compared with the tendencies observed at other burial grounds.

Symbolics of the grave goods from Maykop kurgan and the cult of Inanna-Ishtar
Korenevsky S.N.

Key words: Early Bronze Age, Maykop kurgan, burial rite, Inanna-Ishtar deity.
The article investigates the symbolic assemblages from Maykop kurgan, which is dated broadly to the 37th–34th/33d cc. BC. On the basis of analogies to the gold headbands from the main burial, the gold flowers and their symbols on the various items from the assemblage, and the Tree of Life on the cup, it appears possible to assume that the main burial in Maykop kurgan is that of a priestess of Inanna-Ishtar, a deity whose androgynous qualities were reflected in the specific features of the worship rite.

Skull modeling in the Levant in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Kornienko T.V.

Key words: Levantine, Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, modeled skulls, veneration of the dead, sacrifice, fertility rites.
The so-called modeled skulls that have been found at several sites in the Levantine region (in Jericho, Baysamun, Tell Ramad, Ayn Ghasal, Yiftahel, Tell Aswad, Nahal Hemar and Kfar Hahoresh) continue to be a much-discussed topic among researchers. At present we know of about 100 such objects, which date mainly to Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (МPPNB). The discussions have been focusing on two main questions, namely, who was it that the skulls belonged to, and what was the meaning of the rites they were used for.
The author uses archaeological, anthropological and ethnographic data to give an interpretation of the skullmodeling tradition as part of the fertility rites that were practiced in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic.

Dating of the chamber burial in kurgan 348 at Timeryovo necropolis
Zozulya S.S.

Key words: “druzhina” necropolises, Viking time antiquities, burial rite, emergence of the Old Russian state.
The dates of the “druzhina” necropolises which go back to the time of emergence of the Old Russian state have long been the focus of attention for scholars in this country and abroad. The cemetery at Timeryovo has also been an object of interest. One of the most vivid burials at the site is chamber grave 348, which yielded rich grave goods, clearly Scandinavian in appearance. The article attempts to date the burial on the basis of analyzing the archive materials, the grave goods and the funeral rite, and suggests a new date: 990–1010 AD.
Even though many assertions in the article may appear disputable, we are of the opinion that the most probable date of the burial is the turn of the 10th and 11th cc. Thus, chamber burial 348 may be one of the most recent “classical” chamber burials.

Bolshoye Davydovskoye 2 medieval settlement near Suzdal
Fedorina A.N., Krasnikova A.M.

Key words: Suzdal Opolye, medieval settlement, Bolshoye Davydkovskoye 2, chronology,
development of area.
The article is devoted to Bolshoye Davydkovskoye 2 settlement in the Suzdal Opolye. The settlement is among the best-studied ones in the region, with many surface finds and 865 sq. m of excavations. Analysis of the artifact and pottery assemblages, the radiocarbon dates and the stratigraphic observations allows identifying three periods of domestic and economic activity: late 10th – 11th cc. (probably until its second quarter), the 12th c. (mainly first half to middle), and second half of the 12th – 13th cc. There is a chronological gap in economic activity at the excavated part of the site, dating to the second half of the 11th – early 12th cc. The area of the initial settlement in the eastern part of the site was at least 3 ha. By the second period, development extended to the area near the river, whereas materials from the third chronological period can be found throughout the settlement area. Thus, Bolshoye Davydkovskoye 2 was a large settlement which was characterized by dynamic development and functioned for at least 300 years.

Forged pieces from Krutik medieval settlement
Kashintsev A.Yu.

Key words: Belozer’e, Middle Ages, settlement Krutik, smithcraft, iron items, slag.
The article presents new materials from the 2008–2010 joint investigations of the Onega-Sukhona archaeological expedition of the IA RAS and the Antiquities of the North science and production center (city of Vologda) at the medieval settlement Krutik. The article gives a brief characteristic of the artifact collection and analyzes in detail the iron items. The forged pieces have been analyzed as to category and layers where they occur. Especial attention has been given to the amount of iron finds in different layers and their share as compared to artifacts made of other materials. The article also identifies a special area for smithcraft, which was removed from both dwellings and other production zones. The interpretation is based on the analysis of various types of slag or other finds which are related to the activity in question. In conclusion, the author surmises on the nature and specific features of production at Krutik settlement.

Chronology of the locks and keys from medieval Novgorod (based on the materials from Nerevsky excavation site)
Kudryavtsev A.A.

Key words: locks, keys, lock details, Nerevsky excavation site, Novgorod, chronology.
The entire assemblage of the locks, lock details and keys from Nerevsky excavation site has been analyzed with regard to the typology introduced by B.A. Kolchin. The analysis has revealed certain discrepancies as to the time of use for some of the items and allows making their chronology more precise. The article describes some rare types of keys which were not included in B.A. Kolchin’s typology, and the lock details (latches) which have allowed identifying, with the help of West European analogies, the functional scheme of an allmetal dead lock

Glazed jars of Byzantine origin from Samosdelka site
Boldyreva E.M.

Key words: Samosdelka site, glazed pottery, imports, Byzantine, artistic context.
The article studies the group of glazed jars that were found in 2010 at Samosdelka site. The author uses a wide range of analogies from medieval sites in modern Bulgaria, Crimea, the Azov region, and from Constantinople. The origin and dates of the ware are analyzed on the basis of both the archaeological material and the context of the picture by Duccio di Buoninsegna, which dates to a narrow chronological interval. The article identifies the possible source of import of the jars and the time when they were used.

Textiles from Mari and Mordva burials, 16th–19th cc. (based on the materials from the State Historical Museum)
Pavlova N.A.

Key words: Mari, Mordva, textiles, fabrics, technological analysis.
The article investigates the textiles from Mordva and Mari cemeteries of the Modern Age. The author gives a detailed analysis of the fabrics and braid from the burials. The raw materials, thread, fragments of fabric and other textile items are analyzed. Especial attention is given to the decor of the costume. On the basis of the above data, the article attempts to identify ethnic features in archaeological textiles.

Rescue archaeology in Russia (to the 40th anniversary of the Rescue Excavations Department)
Engovatova A.V.

Key words: rescue archaeology, methods of investigation, practice and legislation on protecting archaeological sites.
The article summarizes the results of 40 years of work of the special Department of the IA RAS which conducts preventive and other rescue excavations. The article addresses the issues of legislation on protecting archaeological sites and tells of the role of state academic institutions (research institutes, museums and universities) and commercial organizations in rescue archaeology. The article offers statistical data on rescue archaeological investigations in Russia.

New find of a stamped Byzantine silver vessel in Eastern Europe
Rodinkova V.E.

Key words: early medieval, Dnieper region, Byzantine silver vessel, stamps.
The stamp which is the topic of the present article is on a fragment of a small silver plate, 18–20 cm in diameter at the rim and 4 cm at the bottom. The three fragments of the plate are part of the hoard which has been found in 2009 on the territory of the sloboda of Zamostye (in modern Sudzha, Kursk Oblast). The hoard belongs to early medieval Dnieper hoards, group I, deposited in the third quarter of the 7th c. The stamp consists of three lines of Latin letters in a rectangle. V.N. Zalesskaya is of the opinion that it belongs to the series of irregular stamps which date on the whole to the 7th c., and that the inscription contains the name of Constantine IV (668–685). Thus, the fragment of the stamped plate from Sudzha-Zamostye is the first find which can allow direct identifying of the absolute chronology for early medieval antiquities in the Dnieper region. It defines the terminus post quem for the hoards which belong to group I and confirms their dates that were suggested on the basis of a relative chronological scheme. In the Dnieper region, stamped Byzantine silver items have been found among the grave goods from Bolshoi Kamenets and Pereschepino, where representatives of the barbarian aristocracy were buried, in the cult assemblage from Voznesenka, and in the Martynovka hoard which is one of the richest and most representative early medieval Dnieper hoards. The context of the finds allows assuming that the fragments of the stamped plate in the hoard from Sudzha-Zamostye points to the special status of the assemblage. Finally, the relatively quick transportation of the plate to the far periphery of the Byzantine Empire indicates that objects of material culture, and, consequently, its bearers, were able to travel quite rapidly, and to cross the ethnic, political and other borders that existed in the early Middle Ages.

 

 
 

 

     
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