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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2012 г. / № 2 (English)

Number 2, 2012

Picks in Oldowan and early Acheulean tool assemblages
Amirkhanov Kh.A.

Paleolithiс sanctuary in Zapovednaya cave in the South Urals
Kotov V.G.

A technological study of the pottery from the Hassuna settlement of Yarim Tepe I
Petrova N.Yu.

A 4th-century AD crypt from the necropolis near Kurskoye village in the Crimea
Trufanov A.A.

Gilt belt set from Kruykovsko-Kuzhnovsky cemetery of the medieval Mordva
Zelentsova O.V., Mitoyan R.A., Saprykina I.A.

“New Materials and Methods of Archaeological Research”. Conference of young scientists. RAS Institute of Archaeology, March 15–17, 2011

A planigraphic study of the bone industry at Sungir Upper Paleolithic site
Soldatova T.E.

A planigraphic study of the flint inventory from the upper occupation layer at Kamennaya Balka II
Medvedev S.P.

The use of microtraceology in analyzing tools of granular and crystalline rock
Zagorodnyaya O.N., Stepanova K.N.

Early nomad blade weapons from the 6th – 1st cc. BC in the cemeteries near Pokrovka (Left Bank of the Ilek)
Kurinskikh O.I.

Relief ornaments on wooden sarcophagi from Phanagoreia
Voroshilova O.M.

Conservation and restoration of underwater finds from Phanagoreia
Akimov V.O., Olkhovsky S.V.

Historical geography of the ancient Maya: traditional approach and GIS methods
Safronov A.V.

Letters as a source in researching the history of archaeology in the Urals region
Vanuysheva K.V.

Discussion

Controversial issues in the methods of interpreting the damaged skeletons from Saltovo-Mayatskoye burials
Afanasyev G.E.

Burial 7 from Plotnikovsky late medieval cemetery
Krylasova N.B., Bruykhova N.G., Belavin A.M.

Publications

Early medieval burial near Razinkovo village in Kursk Oblast
Mastykova A.V.

“The Schleswig man” – a “domovoi” from Novgorod?
Radtke C.

Craftsman’s name on the façade of St. George cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky
Medyntseva A.A.

History of Science

Commemorating the centennial of D.Ya. Samokvasov’s death
Golotvin A.N.

Notes

New finds from Yaiji cemetery
Kulieva Z.K.

Gurd Dag: a new fortress-type settlement
Bakhshaliev V.B., Bagirov R.B.

Stone bases of holy tables and processional crosses from 16th – 18th cc. Moscow churches
Beliaev L.A., Tikhova O.A.

Critics and Bibliography

G.A. Khlopachev. Upper Paleolithic tusk industries in Eastern Europe. St. Petersburg, 2006
Zhilin M.G.

K.N. Skvortsov. The 5th – 14th cc. Mitino cemetery in the Kaliningrad Oblast: results of the 2008 investigations. М., 2010
Kazansky M.M.

Ch. Herrmann. Mittelalterliche architektur im Preussenland. Untersuchungen zur frage der kunstlandschaft und -geographie. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2007
Antipov I.V.

Chronicle

Round table “Archaeology and the greater narrative of Russian history: counteracting the falsification of the past”
Beliaev L.A.

Interstate project “Summer schools for CIS archaeologists and restorers”
Rodinkova V.E., Milovanov S.I., Aleksandrova O.I.

East European glass in antiquity, the middle ages and the modern era: research and restoration
Valiulina S.I., Kuzina I.N., Likhter Yu.A., Stolyarova E.K.

Summaries

Picks in Oldowan and early Acheulean tool assemblages
Amirkhanov Kh.A.

Key words: Oldowan, early Acheulean, stone tools, typology, tool assemblage, picks.
Analysis of assemblages from representative early Acheulean and Oldowan sites in Africa, the Near East and Southern Europe allows concluding that picks as a type of stone tool are common to Oldowan tool assemblages. The article considers the territorial distribution of this type of tool and its evolution from the Oldowan to the Acheulean.

Paleolithiс sanctuary in Zapovednaya cave in the South Urals
Kotov V.G.

Key words: bear cult, sanctuary cave, Upper Paleolithiс, South Urals.
The article presents the results of research at Zapovednaya cave in the Beloretsky region of Bashkortostan. The cave has numerous anthropogenic assemblages related to the worship of cave bear bones and skulls. Investigations revealed the traces of multilayer occupation sites inside the cave. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples revealed that the sanctuary is 11–12 thousand years old. The cave bear bones are over 28 thousand years old. Research at Zapovednaya cave throws light on the early stage of the bear cult in the Urals region during the transitional time from the Paleolithic to the Mesolithic.

A technological study of the pottery from the Hassuna settlement of Yarim Tepe I
Petrova N.Yu.

Key words: Mesopotamia, Hassuna culture, earliest pottery, technology, ornamentation, experiment.
The article presents the results of comparative technological analysis of Hassuna culture pottery from Yarim Tepe I (6th millennium BC) from the lower and middle horizons. The article covers the technological stages of selecting the clay and the organic materials, composing the clay mass and treating the surface, and also considers certain issues related to the ornamentation and firing of the pottery.

A 4th-century AD crypt from the necropolis near Kurskoye village in the Crimea
Trufanov A.A.

Key words: necropolis, crypt, hand-made and red-lacquer pottery.
The article publishes the materials from burials in crypt 4 of the cemetery near Kurskoye village in southeastern Crimea. The burial structures date to the 3d–4th cc. AD. The artifacts found in the graves are typical of barbarian burials in the Crimea, and include hand-made and red-lacquer pottery, metal items and glass beads.

Gilt belt set from Kruykovsko-Kuzhnovsky cemetery of the medieval Mordva
Zelentsova O.V., Mitoyan R.A., Saprykina I.A.

Key words: medieval Mordva, Kruykovsko-Kuzhnovsky cemetery, belt set, chronology, chemical composition, manufacturing technology, attribution.
The belt set from burial 505 of Kruykovsko-Kuzhnovsky cemetery (mid-Volga region) belongs to a rare type of belts which has analogies in the finds from Karancslaujto (northern Hungary) and Minino (Lake Kubenskoye, Northern Dvina basin). Analysis of the grave goods revealed that the burial dates to the 10th c. and is, like the burial at Karancslaujto, a warrior’s one. Stylistically, the two belt sets are similar; however, analysis of the manufacturing technology and chemical composition revealed that the artifacts had been manufactured in different workshops, even though they could have followed a common model. Certain characteristics of the belts from Hungary and the mid-Volga region indicate that both were custom-made items. The existence of such items could indicate a certain differentiation within the warrior milieu, with the belt as a mark of distinction.

A planigraphic study of the bone industry at Sungir Upper Paleolithic site
Soldatova T.E.

Key words: Upper Paleolithic, Sungir, planigraphy, bone artifacts, dwelling areas.
The article presents the results of analyzing the spatial distribution of bone artifacts at the Upper Paleolithic site of Sungir, based on the bone, antler and tusk artifacts from the occupation layer. The distribution of the finds is in accordance with the inclination of the slope on which the site is located; most of the artifacts come from the 2nd provisional horizon. The bone items are mainly concentrated in the two dwelling areas which have been identified by O.N. Bader. The deposits between and around the dwelling areas are most probably a peripheral zone (and/or a specific area for certain activities outside the dwelling area). The bone inventory outside the dwelling areas comprises one typological assemblage (with the exception of the funeral inventory).

A planigraphic study of the flint inventory from the upper occupation layer at Kamennaya Balka II
Medvedev S.P.

Key words: Late Paleolithic, Kamennaya Balka, paleoecology, planigraphy.
Investigations of the upper occupation layer at the Late Paleolithic site of Kamennaya Balka II included a study of its position, analysis of the spatial distribution of the flint finds and reconstruction of the natural environment at the time of deposition. The present article considers one of the aspects of the work, namely, spatial analysis. The site revealed clusters of flint artifacts which showed testimony of primary flaking of the stone material and of manufacturing tools from workpieces. The investigations have confirmed that the upper occupation layer consists of the remains of a fairly large yet short-lived settlement.

The use of microtraceology in analyzing tools of granular and crystalline rock
Zagorodnyaya O.N., Stepanova K.N.

Key words: functional attribution, microtraceology, experimental approach, reference collection, non-modificated stone tools.
In functional attribution of ancient tools, microtraceology is usually used for flint artifacts, and macrotraceology for tools of granular rock. The present article analyzes the use of microtraceology for tools made of granular and crystalline rock. The study is based on type assemblages of tools; part of the experiments has been conducted by the authors (fig. 1). The results confirm the potential of the method, revealing changes in the surface of the tools and allowing to identify some of the materials they were applied to (figs. 2–4). The method has certain limitations which are related to the nature of the initial raw materials.

Early nomad blade weapons from the 6th – 1st cc. BC in the cemeteries near Pokrovka (Left Bank of the Ilek)
Kurinskikh O.I.

Key words: early nomads, burial complexes, blade weapons, relative chronology.
The article covers the blade weapons from the 6th – 1st cc. burials at Pokrovka on the left bank of the Ilek in the Southern Urals. The author offers a typology of the artifacts based on traditional principles of classification. All the combinations of the types of weapons in the assemblages have been analyzed; the types have been grouped chronologically on the basis of analyzing quiver assemblages. The article dates the assemblages which include blade weapons and rectifies the dating for the assemblages in which arrowheads have been found along with swords and daggers. The results of the research show the trends in the development of blade weapons in early nomad populations in the region

Relief ornaments on wooden sarcophagi from Phanagoreia
Voroshilova O.M.

Key words: Asian Bosporus, Phanagoreia, necropolis, burial rite, wooden sarcophagi, relief ornaments.
The article covers relief ornaments on wooden sarcophagi from burial complexes at Phanagoreia. The article is the first compilation of all currently known appliqué work in clay and plaster from the necropolis in the capital city of the Asian Bosporus. The relief artifacts from the funeral inventory were made of plaster and clay (burnt and unburnt). The most representative series of ornaments comprises relief images of the Gorgon Medusa. The relief images were popular for quite a short period of time (middle of the 1st – middle of the 2nd cc. AD) and hence can be considered as fairly precise chronological indicators. The diversity of the relief ornaments and the use of different colors, besides serving decorative purposes, had a ritual meaning and reflected specific notions of the afterlife. Since such artifacts have been found both in ground crypts and in covered pits, we may assume that both types of burial structure were used for burials of fairly wealthy residents of the capital city of the Asian Bosporus.

Conservation and restoration of underwater finds from Phanagoreia
Akimov V.O., Olkhovsky S.V.

Key words: underwater archaeology, methods of conservation, methods of restoration, ancient coins, Phanagoreia.
The article describes the methods used for the desalination, cleaning and conservation of the underwater finds from Phanagoreia, and offers a new approach to cleaning bronze coins found in the sea. It involves cleaning and preservation of both the coin and the crust of corrosion products and silt, which bears on the inner surface a mirror imprint of the image on the coin. The method is relevant for poorly-preserved coins and especially for the coins which cannot be saved.

Historical geography of the ancient Maya: traditional approach and GIS methods
Safronov A.V.

Key words: Maya, historical geography, GIS, archaeology, early state, Nome state, pre-Columbian America, Mesoamerica, Yaxchilán, Usumacinta.
The article tells of the use of GIS for identifying the boundaries of the Mayan state of Pa’Chan, centered around the city of Yaxchilán on the Usumacinta. The database created for the purpose of the present study has used the large corpus of written sources, the archaeological data and the specific features of the local landscape. Spatial GIS analysis of the region allowed identifying the hypothetical borders of the state, which had an area of about 1500 sq. km.

Letters as a source in researching the history of archaeology in the Urals region
Vanuysheva K.V.

Key words: letters, history of Russian archaeology, province.
The article studies the private correspondence which illustrates the history of archaeology in the Urals region. The author analyzes letters written by amateur archaeologists in the Vyatka and Perm provinces during the period from the end of the 19th c. to the 1920-s and identifies several groups of information concerning science in the Urals during the period in question.

Controversial issues in the methods of interpreting the damaged skeletons from Saltovo-Mayatskoye burials
Afanasyev G.E.

Key words: Mayatskoye cemetery, rendering the dead harmless, Narts, Alans, Asi, Khazars, skeletons, Middle Don basin, catacomb cemetery.
The article gives a critical analysis of the method which is used for proving the hypothesis that in the 8th –10th cc. the Alanic-Asi population in the Middle Don basin practiced the rite of rendering the dead harmless. The author is of the opinion that the occurrence of two “masses” of ground in the filling of the dromoi does not prove the existence of such a rite. The signs of “systemic” fracturing of the skeletons (separation of the skull, damage to phalanges and breastbone), instead of proving the existence of the rite, are part of the overall taphological picture of the stages of a corpse’s disintegration. The catacombs of Mayatskoye cemetery are shallow, and hence accessible. Metal inventory is to a large extent absent, which indicates robberies. The archaic features of the funeral rite of Ossetians, descendants of the Alans, indicate that the ritual of rendering the dead harmless could not have been applied within the community. The Alanic worldview as reconstructed on the basis of the Nart epos does not indicate the existence of a ritual for rendering the dead harmless.

Burial 7 from Plotnikovsky late medieval cemetery
Krylasova N.B., Bruykhova N.G., Belavin A.M.

Key words: Perm region, late medieval, burial, gunshot wounds, ushkuiniks.
The article presents a burial assemblage from Plotnikovsky cemetery in the Perm region. The inhumation burial of a noble child contained a hand-made clay vessel, a bird medallion of tin-lead alloy, and amulets of beaver bone. On the basis of the medallion, which is of local manufacture yet the jewellery technique is typically Novgorodian, and of radiocarbon analysis of the bones, the burial has been dated to the period from the middle of the 14th c. to the middle of the 15th c. The skull shows perforation damage which appears to be gunshot wounds. The article interprets the burial as that of a noble Permyak child who died of gunshot wounds at the time when the ushkuiniks were at the peak of their activity on the Kama river.

Early medieval burial near Razinkovo village in Kursk Oblast
Mastykova A.V.

Key words: Middle Danube region, “Antae’s antiquities”, Penkovka and Kolochino cultures, steppe nomads, Danube traditions.
The article covers the double inhumation burial that was discovered in 1962 near Razinkovo village in the Kursk Oblast. The adornments from the grave show a connection with the crafts of the Middle Danube region, whereas the iron torque may indicate the second half or last third of the 7th c. The article gives attention to the place of the find from Razinkovo in the overall historical and cultural context of the Middle Dnieper region. The second half of the 7th c. saw the emergence of Pastyrskoye Gorodische, where the culture had no prominent Slavic features. It is likely that the new place of power on the Dnieper attracted sedentary non-Slavic populations from the south, – the Danube region, North Caucasus and the North Pontic. The context helps explain the combination of Alanic burial rite features and Danube adornments in the burial.

“The Schleswig man” – a “domovoi” from Novgorod?
Radtke C.

Key words: anthropomorphic wooden figurine, Schleswig, 11th–12th cc., Novgorod, trade routes, superstition.
The subject of the article is the unique fi nd from the 11th–12th cc. layer at the medieval port in Schleswig (Germany): an anthropomorphic wooden figurine and its analogies from Western and Eastern Europe. Similar figurines from the same age have been found in Novgorod, and depict the so-called domovye (house spirits). The article considers the trade routes through which the Novgorod figurine could have found its way to Schleswig, and the pagan rituals in Novgorod which could have involved such “idols”.

Craftsman’s name on the façade of St. George cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky
Medyntseva A.A.

Key words: George cathedral, fronton of the north portal, Yuryev-Polsky, carver, carved inscription.
The article publishes, and gives a new reading of, the carved inscription over the fronton of the north portal in St. George cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky. The rectified reading, the analysis of the inscription’s structure and the paleographic and technological characteristics confirm G.K. Vagner’s hypothesis that the inscription is the signature of a carver, possibly that of the general foreman.

 

 
 

 

     
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