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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2011 г. / № 4 (English)

Number 4, 2011

Pottery ornaments as chronological markers for the Early Bronze Age (based on material from Tell Yunatsite)
Mishina T.N.

Certain data on the techniques and technologies used by Kura-Araxes potters (based on material from Novo-Gaptsakh settlement in Dagestan)
Bobrinsky A.A., Tsetlin Yu.B., Gey I.A.

On the cultural identity of certain Late Bronze Age sites near the town of Orsk
Khavansky A.I.

Radiocarbon dates for sites in Suzdal Opolye (Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages)
Makarov N.A., Fedorina A.N., Zaitseva G.I., Groots P.M.

Early medieval horses from the second half of the 9th – beginning of the 10th cc. at Rurik’s hillfort
Spasskaya N.N., Sablin M.V., Mikhailov K.A.

Fragmentation of Kufic coins (based on materials from the Middle and Lower Oka regions)
Gomzin A.A.

Fourteenth-century stone towers of the Okolny Gorod in Veliky Novgorod: unpublished materials and new research
Gaidukov M.P.

Discussion

On oblique palisades in the river Seim region
Yenukov V.V.

Publications

Votive arrowheads from the cave sanctuary at Kamen’ Dyrovaty (South Urals)
Serikov Yu.B.

Cruciform pendants and their modifications in Mordovian culture on the middle Tsna
Andreyev S.I., Terekhova N.V.

Artifacts of non-ferrous metal found at Toretskoye settlement, 15th c.
Valiulina S.I.

History of Science

J.R. Aspelin, A.M. Tallgren and the Ural-Altaic Bronze Age
Salminen T.

The Kama expedition of the State Academy for the History of Material Culture and its work in the Perm region
Lychagina E.L.

Notes

Chalice made of Bos primigenius skull from the environs of Undory village (mid-Volga region)
Viskalin A.V., Yefimov V.M.

Burial of a boy with musical instruments from the Kelginsky cemetery in Mordovia
Begovatkin A.A.

A study of textile fragments from the Toretskoye settlement (15th c.)
Orfinskaya O.V.

Critics and bibliography

Yablonsky L.T. Prokhorovka: At the Source of Sarmatian Archaeology. Мoscow, 2010
Fyodorov V.K.

Andrzej B. Biernacki. Wczesnobizantyjskie elementy i detale architektoniczne Chersonezu Taurydzkiego (Architektura wczesnobizantyjskich budowli sakralnych Chersonezu Taurydzkiego). Vol. II. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 2009. 328 s., 266 tabls., 61 figs.
Arkhipova E.I.

Dyakova O.V. Military Architecture in Central Sikhote-Alin. Moscow, 2009
Leonova N.B.

Lapshin V.A. Tver in the 13th– 15th cc. (based on materials from the 1993– 1997 excavations). St. Petersburg, 2009
Kurbatov A.V., Saksa A.I.

Antipov I.V. Novgorod Architecture in the Time of Archbishops Euthymias II and Jonas of Otnya. Moscow, 2009
Petrov D.A.

Borodovsky A.P., Gorokhov S.V. Umrevinsky ostrog. Archaeological investigations in 2002–2009. Novosibirsk, 2009
Skobelev S.G.

Chronicle

“Archaeology in China and the World: Past, Present and Prospects” International Symposium
Zhang Liangren

To the jubilee of Dmitry Glebovich Savinov
Derevyanko A.P., Molodin V.I., Bobrov V.V.

In memory of Dmitry Yakovlevich Telegin
Pustovalov S.Zh.

In memory of Oleg Andreevich Grabar
Beliaev L.A.

In memory of Arkadiy Anatol’yevich Molchanov
Gaidukov P.G., Chernetsov A.V.

Oleg Dmitrievich Chevelyov
Maslennikov A.A.


Summaries

Pottery ornaments as chronological markers for the Early Bronze Age (based on material from Tell Yunatsite)
Mishina T.N.

Key words: long stratigraphic sequences of occupational deposits, Tell, Early Bronze Age, Thracia, stratigraphy, pottery ornamentation, chronological marker.
Sites with long stratigraphic sequences of occupational deposits are important for the periodization of the Early Bronze Age (late 4th – 3d millennia BC) in the Balkans. Tell Yunatsite in Western Thracia (territory of modern Bulgaria) conforms to the required criteria: the stratigraphic column for the period in question comprises 16 horizons. The article analyzes six types of pottery ornamentation and their qualitative distribution in the horizons. The resulting picture allowed identifying the ornaments that can serve as chronological markers of the Early Bronze Age.

Certain data on the techniques and technologies used by Kura-Araxes potters (based on material from Novo-Gaptsakh settlement in Dagestan)
Bobrinsky A.A., Tsetlin Yu.B., Gey I.A.

Key words: pottery production, pottery, Kura-Araxes culture, technological traditions, potter’s wheel.
The article presents the results of technical and technological study of Early Bronze Age pottery (Kura-Araxes culture) from the excavations at Novo-Gaptsakh settlement in Dagestan. The authors analyze the cultural traditions in the choice and treatment of clay, making of the clay mass, use of molds and potter’s wheels. Local and imported traditions are identified.

On the cultural identity of certain Late Bronze Age sites near the town of Orsk
Khavansky A.I.

Key words: Sintashta cultural type, early Alakul cultural type, funeral rite.
The article covers certain archaeological assemblages dating from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age: the burial near the town of Orsk and the Ishkinovka 1 cemetery. The author analyzes the funeral rite and the inventory and compares them with Sintashta and early Alakul assemblages. The author concludes that the burial near Orsk belongs to the Sintashta type of sites, and Ishkinovka 1 cemetery to the early Alakul cultural type.

Radiocarbon dates for sites in Suzdal Opolye (Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages)
Makarov N.A., Fedorina A.N., Zaitseva G.I., Groots P.M.

Key words: Radiocarbon dating, medieval settlements, Suzdal Opolye, processes of colonization.
Radiocarbon dates substantiate the chronology of type sites and archaeological assemblages, help ascertain the artifact- and pottery-based dating for settlements, and allow making certain general observations on the dynamics of settling the Suzdal Opolye in the Early Iron Age and the Middle Ages. A total of 100 radiocarbon dates have been obtained for 11 archaeological sites in Suzdal Opolye. A new chronological horizon of antiquities has been discovered on the territory in question, dating to the first half and the middle of the 1st millennium AD. Some of the sites in Suzdal Opolye yielded antiquities from the horizon of the 9th – first half of the 10th cc. We can assume that the new settlement network and the new material culture reflecting the integration of Suzdal Opolye into the system of international trade and Baltic cultural relations began to develop in the second half of the 9th c. at the latest. The large series of radiocarbon dates that fall into the range of 10th–12th cc. confirm earlier observations that the period in question was one of intensive colonization and settlement of the Opolye. The series of radiocarbon dates which indicate the period from the middle of the 13th to the middle of the 14th cc. confirms that some of the rural settlements that had been founded in the 10th–12th cc. survived the Mongol invasion and continued to exist in the second half of the 13th c.

Early medieval horses from the second half of the 9th – beginning of the 10th cc. at Rurik’s hillfort
Spasskaya N.N., Sablin M.V., Mikhailov K.A.

Key words: horses, morphology, breeds, palaeozoology, Rurik’s (Novgorod) hillfort, Viking Age.
The article studies the bone remains of horses that were found in strata dating from the 9th – early 10th cc. in Novgorod (Rurik’s hillfort). The material comes from small specimens with a rough body composition, which are morphologically similar to existing aboriginal breeds: Mongol, Kazakh, Polish primitive horse. The bones bear no traces of butchering, hence there is no indication that the horses could have been eaten. All the skulls belonged to stallions, 5 to 15 years old, which had been actively used for riding. All of the above indicates the possible military, or druzhina, nature of the site.

Fragmentation of Kufic coins (based on materials from the Middle and Lower Oka regions)
Gomzin A.A.

Key words: Kufic coins, imitation, Middle and Lower Oka regions, Borkov hoards, whole and fragmented dirhams, apertures, loops, graffiti.
The article analyzes the fragmented Kufic coins from 9th – early 11th-century hoards and single finds in the Middle and Lower Oka regions. The author identifies the types of damage to the coins and the possible purpose of such damage. Analysis of whole and fragmented coins with various types of damage (apertures, loops, graffiti, etc) allows assuming that some of that damage testifies to the movement of the dirhams along the trading routes inside Eastern Europe, and that the movement was not transit. In addition, the hoards and individual finds allow assuming that in some of the cases the fragmentation of the dirhams was not aimed at obtaining just any part of the coin, but had the purpose to get ½ or 1/3 of the whole coin. The assemblages from the last quarter of the 10th c. also indicate that within the region in question payment in dirhams was accepted both in whole coins and fractions and by weight, depending on the circumstances of the payment.

Fourteenth-century stone towers of the Okolny Gorod in Veliky Novgorod: unpublished materials and new research
Gaidukov M.P.

Key words: early Rus, history of fortification, architectural elements, Veliky Novgorod, Okolny (outer) circle, earthworks, moats, stone towers, gates, portcullis.
The article is devoted to Novgorod stone towers from the late 14th c. (the towers existed from 1391 to 1502), which were an element of the Okolny (outer) circle around Veliky Novgorod. The article uses published and unpublished material from architectural and archaeological investigations, written sources and the author’s recent (2009–2010) archaeological investigations at two of the towers. The author gives a comparative analysis of the main structureal features and architectural elements using data from several of the excavated towers, and identifies similar edifices in neighboring regions and in Central and Western
Europe.

On oblique palisades in the river Seim region
Yenukov V.V.

Key words: Romny culture, Siveria, Seim region, hillforts, fortification, oblique palisades.
The issue addressed in the article is the existence in Romny culture of oblique palisades, a type of fortifications known from late medieval descriptions. The author argues against Yu.Yu. Morgunov’s critique of the hypothesis. The source base for the author’s argumentation comprises data from Rat’ hillfort as well as from Bolshoye Gornalskoye and Kapystichi. Rat’ revealed three obligatory elements of oblique palisade fortifications: rampart, fighting-platform and oblique palisade at the outer foot of the rampart. Only two of the above elements, the rampart and the palisade, can be indubitably identified at Gornal’ and Kapystichi.

Votive arrowheads from the cave sanctuary at Kamen’ Dyrovaty (South Urals)
Serikov Yu.B.

Key words: votive items, cave sanctuary at Kamen’ Dyrovaty, votive stone arrowheads, semantics of arrowheads and sanctuary.
The 20 000 arrowheads found in the unique cave sanctuary at Kamen’ Dyrovaty (river Chusovaya) include an extensive series (over 600) of miniature items which can be interpreted as votive objects. Those are encountered among all the groups of arrowheads: stone, bone, bronze and iron. The votive arrowheads date to a wide chronological range, from the Mesolithic to the Middle Ages. The size ratio of the ordinary arrowheads to their miniature copies is 2-3:1 for the stone items and 3-5:1 for the bone and iron ones. Votive items could also include the stone arrowheads which are of untypical color and manufactured of rare types of minerals, and the ornamented bronze arrowheads. The votive arrowheads are an indicator of the sacrificial nature of the rituals that took place at Kamen’ Dyrovaty.

Cruciform pendants and their modifications in Mordovian culture on the middle Tsna
Andreyev S.I., Terekhova N.V.

Key words: Mordovian culture on the middle Tsna, Finno-Ugric peoples, cruciform pendant, typology, adornment, charm, chronological indicator.
Mordovian antiquities from the middle Tsna contain numerous cruciform pendants, which are an ethnic identifier. The authors suggest a typology based on the shape and size of the horizontal pieces and on the way they are joined together. These details can be considered chronological indicators of this type of adornment. Cruciform pendants were worn on the chest, most probably as charms. They existed in the middle Tsna region from the 8th to the 12th cc., when they were replaced by new types of adornments.

Artifacts of non-ferrous metal found at Toretskoye settlement, 15th c.
Valiulina S.I.

Key words: handicraft, non-ferrous metal production, silver inlay technique, Toretskoye urban settlement (15th c.), toreutics, incense burner.
The article publishes artifacts of non-ferrous metal, including a unique medieval copper incense burner, that have been found by the Kazan University Bilyar expedition in the course of investigations at Toretskoye urban settlement (15th c.).

 

 
 

 

     
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