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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2011 г. / № 1 (English)

Number 1, 2011

Main characteristics of the industry at Ainikab I multilayer Early Paleolithic site
(based on the data from the 2005–2009 investigations)
Taymazov A.I.

Wooden artifacts from Zamostje 2 dwelling site
Lozovskaya O.V.

Bone arrowheads with slots from the Middle Trans-Urals
Savchenko S.N.

Cultural adaptation in Primorye in the Middle Holocene
Vostretsov Yu.E., Gelman E.I.

Late Chalcolithic Kurgans in Transcaucasia. The cemetery of Soyuq Bulaq (Azerbaijan)
Lyonnet B., Almamedov K., Bouquet L., Courcier A., Jellilov B.,
Huseynov F., Loute S., Makharadze Z., Reynard S.

Imported artifacts and the ways of their arrival to the South Urals in the Sauromatian
and Early Sarmatian time (historiography of the issue)
Igumensheva E.V.

Hand-made jars of the 5th–4th cc. BC from the Dnieper-Don forest-steppe
Pelyashenko K.Yu., Grechko D.S.

The ethnic and cultural specifi cs of Kyryk-Oba II cemetery
Gutsalov S.Yu.

Defensive ramparts and walls of the 10th–13th cc. according to written sources
Morgunov Yu.Yu.

Descriptions of Old Russian necropoleis in 16th–17th cc. chronicles
Sirenov A.V.

Publications

The Paleolithic dwelling site of Bogdanovka (South Urals)
Shirokov V.N., Volkov R.B., Kosintsev P.A., Lapteva E.G.

A Bronze Age anthropomorphic stone statuette from Eastern Kazakhstan (Lake Zaysan)
Gorelik A.F.

Hoard of ornaments from Duytkovo fortified settlement
Krenke N.A., Lazukin A.V., Tavlintseva E.Yu.

Medieval sword with double fuller from the collection of the Prussia Museum
Prasolov Ya.V.

History of Science

Fate of a scholar: the life of Vassily Alekseevich Gorodtsov in his diaries and recollections
Belozyorova I.V., Kuzminykh S.V., Safonov I.E.

The archaeological occupations of S.F. Platonov
Mitrofanov V.V.

The sources of the intellectual empire of Cambridge in archaeology
Klein L.S.

Critics and Bibliography

Nikolaev A.L. Archaeological institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia: a monograph. Nizhnekamsk, 2008
Tikhonov I.L.

Klein L.S. “New archaeology”. Donetsk, 2009
Lynsha V.A.

Proceedings of the 19th International Radiocarbon Conference. Oxford, 2006
Kuzmin Ya.V.

Chronicle

Issues Concerning the Study of Early Bronze Age Cultures of the Steppe Zone of Eastern Europe. Conference. Orenburg, 2009
Morgunova N.L., Korenevsky S.N.

To the 90th anniversary of Yevgeniy Alfredovich Schmidt
Lopatin N.V., Nefyodov V.S.

In memory of Lev Mikhailovich Tarasov
Sinitsyn A.A.


Summaries

Main characteristics of the industry at Ainikab I multilayer Early Paleolithic site
(based on the data from the 2005–2009 investigations)
Taymazov A.I.

Key words: Lower Palaeolithic, Eopleistocene, stone tools: choppers, pikes, polyhedrons
Ainikab 1 is an extraordinary site in relation to its date and the culture it represents. Geological and geomorphological data, palynological studies and paleomagnetic testing unequivocally point to Early Pleistocene (Eopleistocene), indicating the age of the site as being within the range of 1.8 – 1.2 mln years ago. The archaeological remains, represented by stone tools and faunal remains (layers 10, 11 of excavation site 1) lie in 12 lithologic layers of excavation site 1 and in 6 layers of excavation trench 2. The overall depth of the loose strata in the investigated area is slightly over 12 m from the present-day ground surface. At present, a segment of 1.8 m at the depth of 3 to 4.8 m from the top of the hill-shaped elevation remains unexcavated. The technical and typological features indicate that the industry at the site is typical Oldowan.


Wooden artifacts from Zamostje 2 dwelling site
Lozovskaya O.V.

Key words: Stone Age, Mesolithic, Neolithic, peat-bog sites, organic materials, wooden artifacts, woodworking, Zamostye 2 dwelling site, Volga-Oka interfluve
Wooden items are extremely rare finds at Stone Age dwelling sites. Only about 30 wooden items are known for the Paleolithic period. Mesolithic and Neolithic items have only been preserved in the humid conditions of peat-bog sites. In this regard, the collection of wooden artifacts from Zamostye 2 (in the Moscow oblast’) dwelling site, which has Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic layers (6th – beginning of the 5th millennia BC), is undoubtedly of interest. The assemblage includes handles of polished axes and adzes, implements for hunting and fishing, fragments of crockery, objects of “art”, flattened points, and numerous details of unknown tools and constructions. Many of the items are unique and have no analogies in materials from synchronous sites. The surface of many of the artifacts is well-preserved, hence it became possible to undertake a selective technological analysis of the traces of treatment. The analysis revealed specific details of the treatment techniques for items from different layers, in particular, of the relief working of the surfaces with a stone adze, which is characteristic of the lower layer.


Bone arrowheads with slots from the Middle Trans-Urals
Savchenko S.N.

Key words: Mesolithic in the Middle Trans-Urals, types of bone arrowheads with slots for microblade inserts, manufacturing technology of composite arrowheads in the Trans-Urals
The bone arrowheads from the Middle Trans-Urals include arrowheads with slots for microblade inserts. There are about 140 specimens of such arrowheads. Items with slots are encountered in the following typological groups of bone arrowheads: bodkin-shaped, narrow and flat, one-winged and two-winged. Technical and traceological analysis allowed reconstructing the manufacturing technology. Composite arrowheads had appeared in the Middle Trans-Urals during the Early Mesolithic and continued to be in use until the Early Neolithic, undergoing changes and forming new types, including specifically Urals ones. Composite arrowheads have a wide range of analogies among the Mesolithic and Neolithic materials from the Eurasian forest zone. The nearest is tools from Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites in Eastern Europe. The similarity in the types of composite arrowheads appears to reflect the contacts between the populations of the Urals and the forest zone of Eastern Europe during the Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic. Further study shall refine on the herein suggested scheme for the evolution of types of composite arrowheads in the South Urals, however, it is already clear that this category of weapons was evolving from the Early Mesolithic till the Early Neolithic, and reflecting local traditions as well as relations with neighboring regions.


Cultural adaptation in Primorye in the Middle Holocene
Vostretsov Yu.E., Gelman E.I.

Key words: Eastern Asia, Sea of Japan, human ecology, cultural adaptation in Primorye, Neolithic – Early Iron Age
The article presents the results of our study of the cultural adaptation of the population of Primorye in the Middle Holocene (Early Neolithic – Early Iron Age). The data comes from a comprehensive study of such unique archaeological objects as shelly deposits at sites. The article reconstructs the life sustenance systems of different cultural groups in Primorye in the context of environmental changes in the maritime and continental zones, using a wide range of humanitarian and natural science methods. It traces the connections between the state of the environment and the specific cultural adaptation of settlements and the cultural area in general. The article reveals the environmental factors, such as climate warming or cooling, and transgression or regression of the sea level, which influence to this or that extent the emergence or disappearance of cultural adaptations in continental regions and on the coast. An important indicator of the state of cultural adaptations on the coasts of the Sea of Japan is the emergence and disappearance of sites with shelly deposits. In the context of continuity of the cultural evolution of the Primorye population, the article reconstructs the tendencies towards changes in the types of economic activity in connection with changes in the environment as the resource base for communities.


Late Chalcolithic Kurgans in Transcaucasia. The cemetery of Soyuq Bulaq (Azerbaijan)
Lyonnet B., Almamedov K., Bouquet L., Courcier A., Jellilov B.,
Huseynov F., Loute S., Makharadze Z., Reynard S.

Key words: Late Eneolithic, under barrow chamber graves, secondary burials, ornaments: rings, beads – silver, gold, stone; dagger, awl – copper bronze alloy
In 2005 a Late Eneolithic kurgan necropolis, Soyug Bulag, was discovered and excavated in Azarbaijan on the site of the Baku-Tbilisi-Jeikhan pipeline. About 20 kurgans were excavated. In 2006 the Azerbaijani-French expedition, financed by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and headed by T. Akhundov and B. Lyonnet, excavated another 9 kurgans. The present article publishes the results of the excavations. The studies show that the kurgan ritual appeared in the Transcaucasia a thousand years earlier than formerly believed (the beginning of the 4th c. BC). B. Lyonnet gives a preliminary interpretation of the material. The scholar is of the opinion that the deep changes and innovations that appear to have occurred during the 5th millennium AD could have been related to significant changes in the climate, and the consequent decline of all the Neolithic settlements of the Shulaveri-Shomu culture.


Imported artifacts and the ways of their arrival to the South Urals in the Sauromatian
and Early Sarmatian time (historiography of the issue)
Igumensheva E.V.

Key words: imported items, South Urals, trade contacts, “Scythian trade route”, military-polotical contacts, political gifts, war trophies, mirrors of the Olbia type, wheel-made pottery, mirrors of the rattle type
Imported items are the only testimony of contacts between the nomads of the South Urals and their settled farmer neighbors. There are several opinions about how such items found their way into the nomad milieu of the South Urals. Some scholars support the view that all the items which were not of local manufacture testify to the existence of regular trade contacts between the nomads and their neighbors. Others are of the opinion that the items are war trophies or political gifts to the nomad leaders. Assemblages with imported items are relatively few, hence we cannot speak about steady trade relations between the nomads of the South Urals and their settled farmer neighbors. At the same time the existence of trade exchange between the nomads and the farmers cannot be denied. That is why we should be careful in our interpretations of how the various categories of imported items found their way to the nomads, since the existence of particular types of contacts depended to a large degree on the political situation in neighboring regions.


Hand-made jars of the 5th–4th cc. BC from the Dnieper-Don forest-steppe
Pelyashenko K.Yu., Grechko D.S.

Key words: Dnieper-Don forest-steppe, hand-made jar, Scythian period, typology
The article is devoted to the innovations in the ceramics tradition that appeared in the 5th c. BC on the territory of the Dnieper-Don forest-steppe. In the second half of the 6th – the beginning of the 5th cc. BC significant changes occurred in the pottery assemblage of the population of the Scythian forest-steppe, especially in the production of table and household vessels. A completely new category of hand-made ware appeared, i.e. jars. In this context, the following issues appear to be the most relevant: origin of the form, function of the ware, and territorial and chronological differentiations. The authors are of the opinion that the new form appeared under the influence of an external tradition, that of classical antiquity; however, the true reasons lie in the change of economic priorities that influenced the diet. In the 5th – 4th cc. BC jars replaced some categories of table and household vessels and became part of the regular household utensils.


The ethnic and cultural specifi cs of Kyryk-Oba II cemetery
Gutsalov S.Yu.

Key words: South Urals, Kyryk-Oba, ancient nomads, burial rite, horse harness, architecture
The article publishes the materials from the recently excavated kurgans of the Kyryk-Oba cemetery in Western Kazakhstan, end of the 6th – first half of the 5th cc. BC. The burials, which are those of nomad nobles, have a complex structure and reflect different ritual traditions. We may assume that in the end of the 6th – middle of the 5th cc. BC the area was the center of the camping-ground for the nomads of the South Urals.


Defensive ramparts and walls of the 10th–13th cc. according to written sources
Morgunov Yu.Yu.

Key words: chronicles, earthen ramparts, fortress walls, town fortifications, topographic landmarks, ruined vertical walls
Scholars interpret ancient earthen ramparts as foundations of fortress walls, independent protective barriers and ruins of town fortifications. That is why it is important to determine the real 10th – 13th cc. view of the protective role of ramparts and walls. For this purpose, the author analyzes all mentions of fortifications in the earliest and best-studied chronicles. For the main part, contemporaries perceived earthen ramparts as topographic landmarks. It is symptomatic that there was no established terminology for describing the outer appearance of the ramparts, and that their protective role has not been stressed even in descriptions of assaults on towns or of symbolic dismantling of fortifications by the victor. On the other hand, chronicles offer detailed information about town and fortress walls, telling about their structure, height, defenses and ways of assault. Descriptions of fortified walls in the chronicles became a metaphoric symbol of power and might. The well-developed constructional and technical vocabulary shows that the protective functions of walls were of vital interest to contemporaries, whereas that was not the case for earthen ramparts. The connection between older and ruined earthen ramparts and new walls built over them can be explained by the fact that taller walls meant more protection. Archaeological studies reveal methods of strengthening the old ramparts and traces of repeated renewal of walls above them. It is also possible that a new tradition of fortification was developing, and earthen ramparts were being built intentionally.


Descriptions of Old Russian necropoleis in 16th–17th cc. chronicles
Sirenov A.V.

Key words: source study, necropoleis study, study (and publication) of early texts, history of the Old Rus’, history of the Vladimir-Suzdal Rus’, history of the Old Russian culture, Ivan the Terrible period, princely necropolis
The article is devoted to the description of necropoleis of the 11th – 14th cc. in the Russian tradition in the 16th – 17th cc. There are over ten descriptions of Old Russian necropoleis (in Moscow, Novgorod, Vladimir, Ryazan, Pskov, Nizhny Novgorod, Tver) in manuscripts of the 17th – 18th cc. However, the author is of the opinion that the tradition began in the middle of the 16th c. The author connects it with the foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible.


The Paleolithic dwelling site of Bogdanovka (South Urals)
Shirokov V.N., Volkov R.B., Kosintsev P.A., Lapteva E.G.

Key words: Paleolithic in the South Urals, dwelling site, stone items, faunistic data, pollen analysis
Bogdanovka dwelling site is located in the steppe zone of the Trans-Urals peneplain, in the Kizil region of the Chelyabinsk oblast’, on the left bank of the river Ural, 1.5 km downstream of Bogdanovka village. The occupation layer is about 0.2 m thick and lies horizontally in the top of the alluvial deposits of the flood-plain facies of the second terrace, and is overlaid by more than 7 m of loess loam deposits with two buried soils. The excavations revealed two accumulations of scales, numerous fragments of animal bones, primarily mammoth, charcoal, and stone items. The latter were manufactured mainly of jasper and flinty slate. The tools mostly include various side-scrapers and flakes with retouch, and one point. The industry can be characterized as typical Moustier with elements of Levallois flaking, items mainly unifacial. Taphonomic, faunistic and planigraphic data allows to characterize Bogdanovka as a regular seasonal (spring) dwelling-site near the location of raw materials. Stratigraphic and biostratigraphic information allows dating the site to the first half of Late Pleistocene (MIS-5a-b–4).


A Bronze Age anthropomorphic stone statuette from Eastern Kazakhstan (Lake Zaysan)
Gorelik A.F.

Key words: upper Irtysh Basin, Early Bronze Age, anthropomorphic stone statuette, symbolism
A stray find of an anthropomorphic statuette, discovered on the shores of Lake Zaysan (Kurchum region, Eastern Kazakhstan), offers the opportunity to reconsider the development of a traditional stone sculpture center in the upper Irtysh Basin during the Early Bronze Age. The author argues that the statuette shares many traits with stone sculptures from the Seima-Turbino culture, which developed in a region especially known for its mining and metallurgy. The Zaysan statuette is distinguished above all by its carved depiction of bent hands, which also separates it from the other stone statuettes of this tradition in the upper Irtysh Basin. Such depictions are very scarce in prehistoric sculpture of the steppes and forested steppes of Asia. Thus, it is possible to theorize that this tradition penetrated into the Zaysan region from territories farther to the south and southwest (China and south-central Asia) that had a more developed agriculture and sedentary lifestyle.

Hoard of ornaments from Duytkovo fortified settlement
Krenke N.A., Lazukin A.V., Tavlintseva E.Yu.

Key words: fortified settlement, hoard of bronze ornaments, Moskva river basin, Early Iron Age, ethnic identification
The article publishes a rare find of a hoard of bronze ornaments from the fortified settlement of Duytkovo near Zvenigorod on the river Moskva. The hoard dates to the 1st – 2nd cc. AD and is an important indicator of the abundance of characteristic ornament types, and of the high aesthetic tastes of the ancient population. We can advance the hypothesis that during the period in question a specific ethnic group was evolving on the territory of the Moskva river basin, and that the ethnic identification was expressed, in particular, in wearing umbo-shaped pendants with a specific décor.


Medieval sword with double fuller from the collection of the Prussia Museum
Prasolov Ya.V.

Key words: Prussia Museum collection, Baltic region, double fuller sword blade, Ragnit blade type
This publication is devoted to a medieval sword from the collection of the Königsberg Prussia Museum. The sword was found before the World War II under elusive circumstances in the surrounding of Ragnit in the district of Ragnit, East Prussia. The distinctive feature of this weapon, dated to the 11th – first half of the 12th century, is a for this time period untypical construction of the blade, which is provided with a double fuller. The sword seems, however, to be not the only artefact of its kind: its blade has close analogies among contemporary sword finds and probably represents a blade type (or a variant, respectively), which has not been yet described as such in the archaeological literature.

 
 

 

     
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