Краткие сообщения Института археологии. Выпуск 222 /
Гл. ред. Н.А. Макаров. М.: Наука, 2008
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Археологические исследования в России: новые материалы и интерпретации
Бужилова А.П., Суворов А.В., Крылович О.А. К вопросу о реконструкции образа жизни населения поздних эпох каменного века
Ахметгалеева Н.Б. Зооморфная подвеска из бивня мамонта со стоянки Быки 7
Коробов Д.С., Райнхольд С. Новый тип поселений кобанской культуры в окрестностях Кисловодска
Спиридонова Е.А., Алешинская А.С., Кочанова М.Д. Новые методические направления в палинологии при исследовании археологических памятников средневековья
Яблонский Л.Т., Мещеряков Д.В. Новые открытия в Филипповке
Акимов Д.В., Медведев А.П. Комплекс поселений второй четверти – середины I тысячелетия н.э. у с. Малая Трещевка
Макаров Н.А., Карпухин А.А., Красникова А.М. Курганные могильники Суздальской округи в контексте изучения средневекового расселения и погребальных традиций
Моргунов Ю.Ю. Некоторые наблюдения о «внутривальных каркасах» домонгольских укреплений
Кулаков В.И., Казаченко Ж.Ю. Кунтерштраух: забытый памятник прусской археологии
Нефедов В.С., Мурашева В.В. Модель для изготовления поясных бляшек «восточного облика» с городища Рокот в Смоленской обл.
Макаров Н.А., Красникова А.М. Христианские древности суздальских селищ: новые находки
Гусаков М.Г., Кузьминых С.В. Сетчатая и штрихованная керамика
Горелик М.В. Золотоордынские предметы и их местные подражания в материалах древнерусских городов
Журбин И.В. Геофизические методы в полевых археологических исследованиях
Жилина Н.В. Работа семинара отдела славяно-русской археологии по изучению славяно-русского убора в 2004-2005 гг.
Солдатенкова В.В. Металлические детали одежды
Жилина Н.В. Древнерусская подвеска-коробочка («капторга» ли?)
Степанова Ю.В. Локальные варианты древнерусского женского погребального костюма Верхневолжья
Шутова Н.И. Йыршет – женский головной убор удмуртов
Сабурова М.А. Истоки формирования архаичного женского головного убора (по материалам погребений Гочевского могильника)
Кызласов И.Л. Пятнадцать лет работы группы средневековой археологии евразийских степей ИА РАН
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Buzhilova A.P., Suvorov A.V., Krylovich O.A. Concerning reconstruction of the population’s life-style on the terminal stages of the Stone Age.
Akhmetgaleeva N.B. A zoomorphic pendant made of mammoth tusk from settlement Byki 7.
Korobov D.S., Reinhold S. New type of dwelling sites of Koban culture in Kislovodsk environs.
Spiridonova E.A., Aleshinskaya A.S., Kochanova M.D. New methodical trends in pollen investigations of archaeological sites of the medieval period.
Yablonsky L.T., Meshcheryakov D.V. New discoveries in Filippovka.
Akimov D.V., Medvedev A.P. A cluster of dwelling sites of the second quarter – mid 1st millennium AD near the Malaya Treshchevka village.
Makarov N.A., Karpukhin A.A., Krasnikova A.M. Kurgan cemeteries of the Suzdal vicinities in the context of the studies of medieval settlement and burial traditions.
Morgunov Yu.Yu. Some observations concerning the “in-rampart frames” in the pre-Mongol fortifications.
Kulakov V.I., Kazachenko Zh.Yu. Kunterstrauch: A forgotten site in the Prussian archaeology.
Nefedov V.S., Murasheva V.V. Model for producing belt-mounts of “oriental appearance” from the Rokot hillfort in Smolensk region.
Makarov N.A., Krasnikova A.M. Christian antiquities from the Suzdal open dwelling sites: New finds.
Gusakov M.G., Kuzminykh S.V. Net-impressed and hatched pottery.
Gorelik M.V. Objects of the Golden Horde types and their local replicas in the materials from medieval Russian towns.
Zhurbin I.V. Geophysical methods in archaeological field investigations.
The Slavic-Russian attire
Zhilina N.V. The activity of the seminar in history of the Slavic-Russian attire at the Department of the Slavic archaeology, 2004-2005.
Soldatenkova V.V. Metal costume details.
Zhilina N.V. Medieval Russian receptacle-pendant (a kaptorga?)
Stepanova Yu.V. Local variants of medieval Russian woman’s burial costume in the Upper Volga region.
Shutova N.I. Iyrshet – woman’s folk headdress of the Urmurts.
Saburova M.A. On the origins of the archaic woman’s headdress (according to the materials from the Gochevo cemetery).
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The article by A.P. Buzhilova, A.V. Suvorov, and O.A. Krylovich discusses the results of the archaeological investigations of the Minino association of sites (the Kubenskoe Lake region). The field works have yielded a significant collection of anthropological materials dating back to the late stages of the Stone Age (37 individuals). The studied burials are of different age: the earliest one (No. 19) is attributed to the Middle Mesolithic, the latest one of the dated associations (No. 5) – to the Early Neolithic. Comparison of the planigraphic data and the burials’ chronology evidence that some burials form clusters, and other are separate burials.
From the cultural deposits of Minino I representing different stages of the Stone Age totally 737 fragments of mammalian originate. In the Mesolithic local population mostly hunted elk, marten, water vole-mouse, wolf or dog. Different fish species were objects of fishing. On the later stages the hunters’ bag included also beaver, fox, and bear.
The anthropological studies help to reconstruct rigorous conditions of life determined by the seasonal character of environmental stressors, basic role being played by cold stress. According to the radiological data, two variants of organism’s response to cold climate were singled out. Two stable variants of diet have been established. The complex investigation of physical stresses, the level of traumatism, palaeozoological data, and archaeological materials allowed the authors obtain specific characteristics of the population that lived in the conditions of cold forest zone. Special analysis of teeth crowns shows that rather often male individuals used their teeth as a kind of “third hand”: specific variant of dental attrition registered on molars and not related to age status points to this phenomenon. Similar changes are anthropologically known on the modern Eskimos due to the practice of processing skins with maxillary-dental organs.
The paper by N.B. Akhmetgaleeva is devoted to the publication of a zoomorphic pendant – the first work of the early figurative art known from site Byki 7 in Kursk region (16 thousand years BP). The object is made in the shape of a big ring made of mammoth tusk and surmounted by the terminal showing a sculptured horse head. Sculpture images of horse dating from the late period of the Upper Palaeolithic were not known before from the territory of the Russian plain. Unlike many camps of the “mammoth followers” typical of this region, Byki 7 may be defined as a camp of short stay left by the ungulate animals’ herds followers. Investigation of the unique zoomorphic object provides us with an opportunity of inquiries into the spiritual life of the inhabitants of seasonal camps. Special attention should be paid to the combination of a big ring decorated with crosswise incisions with the horse image.
D.S. Korobov and S. Reinhold present the preliminary results of the investigation of new type of dwelling sites in the Central Caucasus (Kislovodsk environs). Both in the terrain and on aerial photos settlements with a symmetric layout were identified. These consisted of a central spot with a row of houses along their sides. All sites are located south of Kislovodsk on the plateaus situated from 1400 m to 1700 m above the sea level.
All the dwelling sites with symmetric layout follow similar plan. They include an oval or rectangular central spot, sometimes divided by internal walls, and rows of houses on its both sides. The sites are oriented N-S with a deviation to W or E. The settlements’ size ranges from 70 by 50 m to 200 by 200 m. At several sites there was a dump area marked by a high concentration of surface finds. In all, 74 settlements with symmetric layout were identified in the aerial photos so far. The sites share a similar topographic position on the plateau edge near springs and small valleys, and are limited to one environmental zone represented by flat plateaus with altitude ranging from 1400 m to 2000 m above the sea level. The field surveys were carried out at ca. 30 sites in 2004 and 2005; all of them are dated by surface finds to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages represented by local Koban culture. This fact, together with the sites’ uniform layout and topography leads to the conclusion that all sites in question should be attributed to the same cultural period. The settlements generally form clusters of two, sometimes three sites located close to each other. These settlement structures are highly promising for further spatial analysis with application of GIS technologies, which is an aspect of the planned work.
The work by E.A. Spiridonova, A.S. Aleshinskaya, and M.D. Kochanova discusses new methodical trends in pollen analytical studies worked out in the course of investigations of medieval archaeological sites. The discussed sites need a different approach in carrying out pollen analyses than those dating from the earlier epochs. This situation is determined by the fact that the Middle Ages represent relatively a very short period and chronologically close to the present, therefore it is difficult to register correctly the corresponding climatic changes. It was established that the discussed period was characterized by substantial man-caused landscape transformations in the environment that in some cases developed much more rapidly than those determined by climatic factors.
The paper by L.T. Yablonsky and D.V. Meshcheryakov presents new materials from Filippovka. In the season of 2005 archaeological investigations of the 1st Filippovka kurgan cemetery were continued. The site is situated in Ilek district, Orenburg region. Three burial mounds have been excavated. Two associations turned to be a sensation: it was burial of a youth buried in standing position, which is absolutely unique (kurgan 16), and burial of a young male in the central part of the underground passage (kurgan 28). The latter find evidences ritual function of similar underground passages traditionally interpreted as the traces of pillaging. Of special significance for establishing the cemetery’s accurate chronology is a fragment of a golden ornament. The image it bears has its close counterparts on the seals from the Achaemenide palace treasury in Persepolis dating back to the 19th year of Xerxes’ reign, that is, 467-466 BC. The investigated kurgans have yielded other objects with reliable chronology that confirm the date suggested for the cemetery – the second part of the 5th – 4th cc. BC. They include objects of high artistic value produced of precious metals.
Yu.Yu. Morgunov’s paper discusses the frame-like constructions discovered inside the fortifications of the pre-Mongol period. In Medieval Rus’ defensive constructions consisted mostly of earthen ramparts. Traditionally, it is held that the medieval Russian fortifications were built of earth only, though in some cases these contain log constructions. The author shows that our ideas on this point depend on the state of preservation of timber, as well as the methodical level of excavations. Charred wood is much better preserved, but thorough investigations give an opportunity to trace the remains of timber constructions not affected by fire, even in the ramparts built of sandy soil permeable to water.
The article by V.I. Kulakov and Zh.Yu. Kazachenko is devoted to the results of the field works carried out by the Zelenograd branch, the Baltic expedition of the Institute of Archaeology (2005). The works covered the periphery of a moraine height situated in the Trostyanka and Zelenogradka rivers interfluve (Zelenograd district, Kaliningrad region). Excavations were conducted at the kurgan cemetery in the forested locality named Kunterstrauch. The site underwent excavations as early as 1876, when in kurgan A two burials were discovered. Burial I was a female one, and burial II was a male one. The both individuals were deposited in wooden coffins lined with stones, their heads pointing E. From the kurgan the following objects were recovered: a spearhead, a knife, a half of a dirham, a pair of spurs, a stirrup fragment, a lyre-shaped shoe buckle. In the mouth cavity of the male skeleton two silver bracteates struck in the early 14th c. in Königsberg were found. These finds suggest that the burial dates from the early order epoch. In 1899 a group burial of the second part of the 13th c. was excavated in the same locality. The land surveys of 2005 revealed 8 small mounds, two of them are around 1.5 m high and look as typical kurgans.
V.S. Nefedov and V.V. Murasheva consider an unusual find recovered from the territory of destroyed kurgan cemetery near the Rokot village, Smolensk region. The cemetery entered a cluster of archaeological sites of the late 9th – 10th cc. that also included a hillfort, one of the largest ones in the Dnieper and Dvina interfluve. Varied and spectacular finds evidence the multiethnic and socially stratified character of the population that inhabited the hillfort (including people of the Scandinavian origins) and controlled one of the most important portages on the route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The artefact published by the authors is interpreted as a defect matrix for producing slotted quadrangular belt-mounts, or as a defect casting of such a mount. The known sets of belt-fittings are of the Turkic origin; these were rather widely spread in Central Asia and Eastern Europe from the late 7th to the 11th cc. In accordance with the suggested interpretation the authors suppose that in the territory of the Smolensk region between the Dnieper and Dvina in the 10th c. some people wore belts of the discussed type (which is confirmed by the Gnezdovo finds), and even tried to produce, or repair them.
The paper by N.A. Makarov and A.M. Krasnikova introduces into scientific turnover the objects related to the Christian cult dating from the 12th – 15th cc. and obtained by the recent excavations of the rural dwelling sites in the Suzdal Field region (Opolye). These are icon-pendants, reliquary crosses, a pectoral cross; metal, stone and clay pendant-crosses. Of special interest in the published collection is a fragment of the two-side stone icon bearing representations of saints and a medallion of zmeevik type with the scene of Epiphany. The finds related to the Christian cult from the Suzdal open dwelling sites well correspond to the general picture of wide spreading of the objects of personal piety among the inhabitants of the rural sites in the 12th – 13th cc. unfolded by the recent investigations. Anyway, the content of the Suzdal collection is marked by certain specifics. These are the series of relatively rare categories and types of objects with rather complicated symbolic meaning. Probably, this mirrors some specifics of the cultural traditions developed in the centre of the Suzdal land that emerged in the situation of more intense and profound adaptation of Christianity in the discussed territory.
M.G. Gusakov and S.V. Kuzminykh raise the question on the role the bearers of “net-impressed” and hatched pottery played in the history of the Volga-Oka interfluve in Hallstat, and formation of D’yakovo and Gorodets cultures. The authors dwell upon the history of investigation of the “net-impressed” pottery, in particular, they discuss A.A. Bobrinsky’s experimental work on the simulation of net-impressed pottery. These experiments can help to explain the similarities and differences in the origin of the surface treatment known as “stamped pottery”. It is supposed that the early stage of D’yakovo culture (the 8th – 6th cc. BC) was not in fact related to this culture, but represented an independent phenomenon. It should be interpreted as the final stage of the Bronze Age of Eastern Europe, substantially postponed in the forest zone. At the same time the coeval forest-steppe communities had already passed the changeover to the Iron Age. The same reasons are responsible for slow development of the Upper Volga sites in the context of D’yakovo culture. It is stressed that at the discussed sites net-impressed pottery ceased as late as the mid 1st mill. AD.
M.V. Gorelik considers some categories of finds from the excavations of Medieval Russian towns related by their origin to the territory of the Golden Horde, or its trade partners. Some objects may be interpreted as local Russian imitations of the Golden Horde imports. The discussed finds are of importance as the indications of many-sided contacts with the empire of Jochi descendants, and serve as reliable chronological markers. In Medieval Rus’ objects of the Golden Horde production were popular as the elements of prestigious culture, and as such were used by the social elite, in particular, in North-Western Rus’ minimally dependant from the Jochi domain. The objects of the Golden Horde origin were valued so highly that Russian craftsmen produced their local replicas, both made of equally valuable materials, and of cheaper ones.
The article by I.V. Zhurbin discusses the application of geophysical methods in field archaeological researches, the tasks set and examples of realization. The author suggests a logical scheme of geophysical measurements performed, when investigating archaeological sites. They include land surveys, reconstruction of site’s layout, and reconstruction of separate archaeological objects. The suggested scheme presupposes a sequence of obtaining accurate data concerning the site. On each stage of complex archaeo-geophysical investigations specific tasks are set, necessary preliminary data determined, and the degree of accuracy of archaeological objects’ description established proceeding from geophysical data. The efficiency of the archaeo-geophysical measurements is demonstrated by the results obtained at several archaeological sites of different age located in different landscape zones.
The paper by V.V. Soldatenkova discusses metal details and jewellery items that entered the costume worn by urban population in the 15th – 16th cc. The author analyses rich materials originating from the recent archaeological investigations of the Zat’matsky suburb in Tver’ (excavation trench No. 56). The article discusses the repertoire of metal costume details and jewellery typical of the Tver’ urban costume, and traces the development of their shapes and function. The archaeological materials are compared with those known from the ethnographic data. Despite certain influences, basic characteristic features of the Russian costume, both its construction and decorations remained rather stable in the course of time.
N.V. Zhilina’s paper is devoted to a detailed analysis of a unique find – a receptacle-pendant from the Gnezdovo treasure of 1867. Only one find of this kind is known so far from the territory of Medieval Rus’. Its function was similar to that of the amulet receptacles known in the East and in the West, but the Gnezdovo find is related to the pagan beliefs of the Eastern Slavs. The pagan amulet was transformed into a detail of jewellery forming the apparel of the 10th c. decorated with filigree and granulation. The word kaptorga denotes a small container, or a receptacle; it is known from the Russian texts from the 14th c. Probably, the word was not used in the 10th c., though its meaning corresponds to the discussed pendant’s function.
In the paper by Yu.V. Stepanova the problem of singling out local variants of medieval Russian woman’s burial costume is considered. The author analyses the whole corpus of materials from the kurgan cemeteries of the Upper Volga region. Metal costume details are of special significance, when distinguishing different variants of burial costume. Totally three basic local variants of costume have been singled out, as well as several sub-variants that were used in some districts. Moreover, specific features in costume were traced even for the clusters of two or three kurgan cemeteries. Three basic costume variants probably reflect the process of formation of the medieval Russian costume, developed from the Slavic one. They also help to reconstruct the process of settling the territory by the Slavs. The third basic variant of costume used in the East of the discussed region mirrors some characteristic Finno-Ugrian features preserved in the area. In the West certain costume details are related to the Balts’ tribes. The sub-variants point to the process of formation of the medieval Russian costume typical of the Upper Volga, and similar to the North Russian costume known ethnographically. In this context the history of some features of the Tver folk costume becomes clearer.
The work by N.I. Shutova is devoted to the Udmurt folk headdress worn by women in the late 17th – early 20th cc. and known as iyrshet. The author pays special attention to the parallels between the archaeological finds from the cemeteries of the 17th – 18th cc., and ethnographic materials. The discussed type of headdress was worn by young married women after birth of the first child. Special ritual was celebrated in the period of field works, when the headdress was put on the woman.
M.A. Saburova discusses the origins of the archaic woman’s headdress with the regard to the materials from the Gochevo cemetery. Some finds from the burials have their counterparts in the recent ethnographic materials. Taking these into account, the author suggests a version of reconstruction of the archaic Slavic woman’s headdress.
Translated by L.I. Avilova