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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2013 г. / № 4 (English)

Number 4, 2013

The ethics in archaeology and the policy of the journal
Makarov N. A., Munchaev R. M., Engovatova A. V., Belyaev L. A.

The Oldowan site Mukhkai II: paleontological data for dating and reconstruction of the natural environment
Sablin M. V., Amirkhanov Ch. A., Ozherelyev D. V.

The neolithic fortified settlements of the Western Siberia and Trans Urals
Borzunov V. A.

Bone pins of the bronze age: the results of the radiocarbon dating
Shishlina N.I., van der Plicht J., Zazovskaya E.P.

The village territory Massalia in the 6th–3rd cc. B.C.: the main problems
Suprenkov А. A.

The land and the city: medieval ancient settlement in the surrounding of Vladimir-upon-Klyazma
Makarov N. A., Fedorina A. N., Shpolyanskij S. V.

The Old Russian “dress” from Izjaslavl: new attribution
Orphinskaya O. V., Mikhailov K. A.

Burial grounds with burnt corpses of the 8th–13th cc. in the North Western Caucasus (the dynamics of the grave ritual)
Uspenskiy P. S.

The patriarch’s Nikon burial in the Resurrection New Jerusalem monastery: the investigations of 2012
Belyaev L. A., Kapitonova M. A.

The alabastr sarcophagus of patriarch Nikon: the composition and the possible sources
Alekseev A. S., Zavjalov S. M.

Publications

The early middle-ages zoomorphic pottery vessel from the burial Edis
Dzattiaty R. G.

The new data about Old Russian swords of A-handle type
Begovatkin A. A.

Discussions

The ligislation in the protection of archaeological heritage (the foreign experience)
Korenyako V.A.

History of Science

The “Siloam monolith” and “Verkhotura”: the archaeology of Russian parts in the City of David
Chekhanovets Y.

Gordon Randolph Willey, the founder of the “settlement archaeology” in the USA
Gulayev V. I.

The archaeological studies in Chechnya in the second half of 40 – the first half of 50th of the 20th c.
Mamajev Ch. M., Mamajev R. Ch.

Critics and Bibliography

Population Dynamics in Prehistory and Early History. New approaches using stable isotopes and genetics / Eds Elke Kaiser, Joachim Burger, Wolfram Schier. Berlin; Boston, 2012
Dobrovolskaya M. V.

Georgian archaeology: review of publications of 2003–2006
Chkhaidze V. N.

Chronicle

On the exhibition “The Ice Age art: arrival of the modern mind” (The British Museum)
Devlet E. G.

The conference in the honor of the 80th anniversary of the archaeological monument “The ancient sanctuary Ust-Poluj” (Salekhard, 2012)
Fedorova N. V.

The second International congress of the medieval archaeology of the Eurasian steppes
Sitdikov A. G., Tishkin A. A., Khuzin F. Sh.

On the anniversary of Natalia Nikolaevna Terekhova
Zavjalov V. I.

On the 80th birthday of Svetlana Viktorovna Oshibkina
Zimina M. P., Sorokin A. N., Studzitskaya S. V.

On the memory of Alexander Vasiljevich Matveev
Troitskaya T. N., Derevyanko A. P., Molodin V. I., Polos’mak N. V., Matveeva N. P.

Rules for the authors

List of abbreviations

Author index, 2013


Summaries

The Oldowan site Mukhkai II: paleontological data for dating and reconstruction of the natural environment
Sablin M. V., Amirkhanov Ch. A., Ozherelyev D. V.

Key words: Early Pleistocene, site Mukhkai II, Dagestan, fauna materials, dating, paleolandscape.
The results of the studies of the unique for the North Caucasus fauna materials originated from the layer 80 of the Oldowan site Mukhkai II are published in the article. The twenty six animal units of the four predatory mammals and six species of the graminivorious mammals were identified on the basis of these materials. The existing time of this animals’ complex is considered in Europe to be in the range of 2.1–1.76 million years ago. Respectively the dating of the layer 80, Mukhkai II, is close to the age of the site Dmanisi in the south Caucasus where the same range of big mammals is represented. The materials give the opportunity to reconstruct the open landscapes of savanna with the fields of the forest flora on the studied territory in the specified time.

The neolithic fortified settlements of the Western Siberia and Trans Urals
Borzunov V. A.

Key words: fortified settlement, Neolithic, Western Siberia, Trans Urals.
Six stages of the expansion of the fortified settlements in the Old World in the 7th millennium B.C. – 3rd c. A.D. are proposed in the article. The general characteristics of the Neolithic sites and their prototypes of the 6th–4th millennium B.C., which were founded in the taiga of the Western Siberia and Trans Urals, is given. The reasons of their formation are also viewed in the article. The Neolithic forest forts are situated on the promontories, on the edges of terraces and in the depth of the bank. They are protected by pale fences, log walls and ditches. They were built and probably invented by the primitive groups of the taiga fishermen and hunters. The main reason of their invention is separation and consolidation of the relatively free trade zones in the conditions of the influx of immigrants from the south in the period of climatic optimum and fierce competition among the communities.

Bone pins of the Bronze Age: the results of the radiocarbon dating
Shishlina N.I., van der Plicht J., Zazovskaya E.P.

Key words: Bronze Age, Eurasian Steppes, radiocarbon dating, bone pins.
Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time 11 pins have been radiocarbon dated. 14C dating of bone pins identified the catapult type pin as the earliest one. They marked the period of the Yamnaya culture formation. Then Yamnaya population produced hammer-headed pins, which became very popular in other cultural environments and spread very quickly across the Steppe and the Caucasus during 2900–2650 cal BC. But according to the radiocarbon dating bone pins almost disappeared after 2600 cal BC.

The village territory Massalia in the 6th–3rd cc. B.C.: the main problems
Suprenkov А. A.

Key words: Phocean colonization, Greek Massalia, Greek and Barbarian communities, polis and chora.
The article concerns the history and archaeology of Massalia, the biggest Phocean colony on the north-west Mediterranean. The subject of the studies is the village territory of the city from the foundation to the beginning of the Punic wars as of in the context of the relations between Greek and Barbarian communities.

The land and the city: medieval ancient settlement in the surrounding of Vladimir-upon-Klyazma
Makarov N. A., Fedorina A. N., Shpolyanskij S. V.

Key words: medieval settlements, village settlements of Vladimir-on-Kljaz’ma, dynamics of colonization processes.
This work considers the results of the studies cycle in the south part of Vladimir-Suzdal Opolje on the territories not far from the border of Suzdal and Vladimir principalities of the 14th c., which were to the south of this border. As the result of 2006–2013 field studies, the data about 103 archaeological monuments and locations in the south part of Opolje on the total territory of approximately 105 square meters was gathered. New materials show that the exploration of the south part of Vladimir-Yurjev Opolje by the Old Russian colonists started not later than in the second half of the 10th c. and was dynamically developing in the 11th – the beginning of the 12th c. By the time of Vladimir became the independent volost of Andrej Yurjevich the dense net of village settlements had been there. The net was the part of the common mass of the medieval settlements formed on the territory of the whole Opolje. The organization of the settlement in “Vladimir” part of Opolje was basically close to the structures studied in the surrounding of Suzdal. The organization is the dense net formed by large settlements covering riverside parts and water partings and is of frame-net character.
The feature of the settlement development in the south part of Opolje is that in the second half of the 13th–14th cc. the stable existence of about half of the large settlements here was interrupted. They were completely deserted, moved to new places or decreased significantly. Apparently the decline was connected to the Mongol overthrow and the war events of the second half of the 13th c. Obviously the war cataclysms and political instability impacted not only on the condition of the capital city but also on the existed agricultural system having broken the stability and steadiness of the village settlements including those which were already formed in the second half of the 10th–11th cc.

The Old Russian “dress” from Izjaslavl: new attribution
Orphinskaya O. V., Mikhailov K. A.

Key words: Middle Ages, костюм XIII в., древнерусская одежда, dress from Izjaslavl, Polovets kaftan, reconstruction of costume, medieval textile, linum, cotton.
“The dress from Izjaslavl” being a unique find of almost an undamaged sewed piece of work took one of the places of honor among real archaeological finds of the Old Russian clothes. The researches done in a modern scientific level revealed that this cloth is not a woman’s dress at all but is likely a man’s kaftan which analogues can be found in a Polovets costume. A new look at the well-known material showed how little we know. This fact also led to an attentive and very accurate reexamination of some facts and allowed to set new tasks in studying of the Old Russian costume.

Burial grounds with burnt corpses of the 8th–13th cc. in the North Western Caucasus (the dynamics of the grave ritual)
Uspenskiy P. S.

Key words: North Western Caucasus, burnt corpses rite, ground burials, barrow grave,
spatial analysis, dynamics.
The article considers the dynamics of the areal of the ground burials of the 8th–13th cc. with the ritual of burnt corpses on the territory of the North Western Caucasus. The author identified the areal groups of necropolis and calculated their density using the methods of geographic information system analysis. The received data gave the opportunity to identify the initial areal of the tradition and trace the dynamics of the expansion of such burials during the whole period of the existence of the cremation tradition in the North Western Caucasus. The author draws the conclusion that over the period of the existence of such tradition the areal of necropolis was being changed partially. New features were added to the burial tradition. But the unity of the territory of the studied monuments testifies the direct continuity and correlation of the cremation of the Khazars cultural historical period and the Pechenegs Polovets one.

The patriarch’s Nikon burial in the Resurrection New Jerusalem monastery: the investigations of 2012
Belyaev L. A., Kapitonova M. A.

Key words: patriarch Nikon, burial, crypt, epitaph, restoration and history of New Jerusalem monastery, necropolis of Early modern period.
The data on Patriarch Nikon’s burial is published in the article. This legendary character of the middle of the 17th c. is known for the try to correct formularies. This try led to Schism. Besides the quarrel with Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov was the reason to Patriarch Nikon’s long lasting exile and made him a martyr in the eyes of many Russian people. Nikon engineered and built a lot of monasteries the famous one is the Resurrection monastery on the river Istra to the south west of Moscow. The monastery was named New Jerusalem. It was planned as a precise topographic replica of the Holy Land and its Cathedral as a precise replica of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Nikon was buried in a special tomb topographically matched the one where Melchizedek was buried in Jerusalem. In Orthodoxy the possibility of finding the relics plays one of the significant roles. That is why the opening of Nikon’s tomb (caused by the technical necessity of restoration which is taking place in the monastery) was of great interest not only for historians but also for all believers.
Unfortunately the burial was completely destroyed in 1930-s by the atheists. However the archaeological studies gave the opportunity to solve a lot of disputable questions of the tomb’s structure. Thus it was proven that the construction despite of the range of serious damages is of 1685 so to say is the original. Also its view so as a lot of details of Nikon’s burial in 1682 was the genuine one and did not match many traditional forms of burial and monument building. Important data was also received for the restoration of the general view of the tomb. The sarcophagus earlier inaccessible to anyone was examined. The sort of stone it was made of was identified (the analyses are given in next specific article in the same issue). The data about the placing of two epitaphs which were written at the order of Tsar Fyodor Alexeevich especially for the occasion of Nikon’s burial was received (they are one of the first examples of early Russian syllabic poetry).

The alabastr sarcophagus of patriarch Nikon: the composition and the possible sources
Alekseev A. S., Zavjalov S. M.

Key words: New Jerusalem monastery, sarcophagus and tombstone of patriarch Nikon, gypsum and alabaster in Russia in XVII c., deposit, mining, transportation of mineral resources and construction materials.
The data of the mineralogical research of the stone sarcophagus and the tombstone of Patriarch Nikon (died in 1681) in The Resurrection Cathedral of the New Jerusalem monastery is published in the article. The samples for the studies were received during the excavations of the Institute of Archaeology of Russian Academy of Science in 2012. The material of the works was identified as gypsum (alabaster) which corresponds to the mention in Patriarch’s hagiography. Two possible development areas in Russia are being suggested, the beds in the region of Arkhangelsk and Nizhniy Novgorod historically connected to the life of the Patriarch.

The early middle-ages zoomorphic pottery vessel from the burial Edis
Dzattiaty R. G.

Key words: South Ossetia, Early Middle Ages, ground cemetery, zoomorphic pottery vessels.
The article considers the publication of the finds’ assemblage of the burial 8 of the ground cemetery which is situated near the village Edis of the Dzau district of the South Ossetia. The burial is preliminary dated by the author back to the 7th–8th cc. It represented a cumulative multitude grave in a ground pit. The remains of four buried people were found in the burial. The bones of three skeletons were displaced but the other one was in a relative anatomical order. The buried were accompanied by the crockery, adornments and the apparel’s accessories: fibulas, pins, earrings, buckles, pendants, beads and a tip of a belt. The specific attention in the article is drawn to the unique zoomorphic vessel in a shape of a sheep founded in the burial. The closest analogues to this find can be found in the North Ossetia. The author believes that the vessel could be of religious worship because the image of a sheep in the Iranian tradition generally and in the Ossetian particularly is identified with the image of Khvarenah.

The new data about Old Russian swords of A-handle type
Begovatkin A. A.

Key words: Old Russian swords of A-handle type, sword from Purdoshki village, boundary of X–XI cc., metallographic analysis.
At the end of 1980-s during the open-cut works for break stone development an Old Russian sword with a bronze handle, which was according to the classification of A.N. Kirpichnikov of an A-handle type and dated back to 1000 year, was found in the near vicinity of the village Purdoshki of the Temnikovsky district of the Republic of Mordovia. The sword from the village Purdoshki is the fourth published find of such kind found on the European territory. Furthermore, this is the only exponent known in Russia which has a rich ornamentation in the shape of intertwined double vegetable sprouts combined with the eastern palmettes placed on the guard of the hilt. The appearance of Old Russian swords on the territory, which was not under control of Russian Princes, A.N. Kirpichnikov considers as a demonstration of a military activity of Kyiv in the eastern direction. Pendants with the sign of the Riurikid dynasty found in Kelginsky burial in Moksha area and in Rozhdestvensky burial in Kama area testify it indirectly.

The legislation in the protection of archaeological heritage (the foreign experience)
Korenyako V.A.

Key words: ethics, Ethics Code, professional archaeologists, commercialization of archaeology, intellectual property and copyright in archaeology.
This article considers the problem of establishing the Ethics Code for Russian archaeologists on the bases of the analysis of the Ethics Codes of the USA, Canada, European Union and the Ukraine. The Codes’ texts are published in the translations of the author.

 

 
 

 

     
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