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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2013 г. / № 3 (English)

Number 3, 2013

Gigantolith tools in the Oldowan industry of Dagestan
Amirkhanov Kh.A.

Saltovo-Mayatsk kitchenware: an ethnic marker?
Afanasyev G.E.

Fantastic animals in the decor of medieval metal artifacts from the Sayan-Altai
Korol’ G.G.

Medieval assemblages with temple pendants from the Volga region
Blokhin V.G.,  Petrov P.A.

New Materials on the Archaeology of Uzbekistan

Reconstruction of an ossuary from Durmen Tepe in Central Sogdiana
Myagkova O.A.

New finds of engraved gems and their impressions from Old Termez
Pidaev Sh.R.

Ceramics and the chronology of the residential quarter of Paikend in the 7th–8th cc.
Saparov N.Zh., Torgoev A.I.

A previously unknown ornamental motif on carved ganch from Varakhsha
Tsvetkova T.G.

Mountainous Ustrushana and certain issues of the historical geography of Central Asia
Sverchkov L.M.

Publications

Mesolithic complex with a wolf burial in the Baikal region
Bazaliiski V.I., Losey R.J., Pezhemsky D.V., Garvie-Lok S., Germonpre M., Leonard J.A.

Proto Kura-Araxes ceramics of Nakhchivan
Bakhshaliev V.B.

Late Prokhorovka burial from the Nagornoye kurgan cemetery in Western Kazakhstan
Gutsalov S.Yu.

Crypt 96 of Levadki cemetery (Central Crimea)
Muld S.A., Kropotov V.V.

Horn hatchets from Rozhdestvenskoye settlement
Krylasova N.B.

“Gnezdovo-type” pendants from the Upper Oka basin
Modin R.N.

Pre-Mongol epigraphic find from Rostislavl
Koval’ V.Yu., Medyntseva A.A., Yeremeev A.A.

History of Science

To the 250th anniversary of Scythian archaeology
Gulyaev V.I.

To the 120th jubilee of the International Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology
Gusev K.A.

Critics and Bibliography

J. Źrałka. Terminal Classic Occupation in the Maya Sites Located in the Area of Triangulo Park, Peten, Guatemala. Krakow, 2008
Savchenko I.A.

Chris Wickham. Framing the Early Middle Ages. Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800. Oxford, 2005
Korobov D.S.

Grotowski P. Arms and armour of the Warrior Saints. Tradition and Innovations in Byzantine Iconography (843–1261). Leiden; Boston, 2010
Popov A.S.

Chronicle

III Abkhazian International Archaeological Conference in memory of G.K. Shamba. Sukhum, 2011
Dode Z.V.

II International Scientific Conference “History of Archaeology: Researchers and Scientific Centers (to commemorate the 165th anniversary of F.K. Vovk)”. Kiev, 2012
Smirnov A.S.

III International Ceramics Workshop “Table Ware of the Aegaean Coast of Anatolia from the Late Hellenistic Period to the Middle Ages: Manufacture, Imitations and Use”. Nieborow (Poland), 2012
Zhuravlev D.V.

To the 50th anniversary of the History of Ceramics research group
Tsetlin Yu.B.

To the jubilee of Aleksandr Mikhailovich Leskov
Polin S.V., Erlikh V.R.

Rules for the authors

Summaries

Gigantolith tools in the Oldowan industry of Dagestan
Amirkhanov Kh.A.

Key words: Oldowan, stone tools, typology, Dagestan, Ainikab I, Mukhkai I, II, gigantolith tools.
The article gives a characteristic of an uncommon category of Oldowan tools from Central Dagestan. Materials from the multilayer sites of Ainikab I and Mukhkai I and II are used to illustrate the occurrence of especially large bifacial tools in Oldowan base camp inventory on the territory in question. Typologically the tools are of the same shape as Oldowan choppers and picks.

Saltovo-Mayatsk kitchenware: an ethnic marker?
Afanasyev G.E.

Key words: Saltovo-Mayatsk culture, Bulgarians, Khazarians, Alans, kitchenware, pots, cauldrons, Central Caucasus, Middle Don.
The article covers the topic of Saltovo-Mayatsk kitchen ware (pots and cauldrons) as a possible marker of the settling of Turkic-speaking Bulgar and Khazar tribes in Southeastern Europe. Analysis of the methodological approaches and correlation of the pottery specimens with the anthropological characteristics of the population allow assuming that the above hypothesis is untenable. The author concludes that the Alanic population of the Middle Don basin and the early medieval population of the Central Caucasus had been manufacturing such ware since and an earlier time.

Fantastic animals in the decor of medieval metal artifacts from the Sayan-Altai
Korol’ G.G.

Key words: metal finds, Middle Ages, Sayan-Altai, cultural impact, decor, images of fantastic animals, syncretism.
The article analyzes and systematizes the images of fantastic animals in the decor of medieval artifacts from the Sayan-Altai: tiger/panther, lion, griffin, lion-dog, lion-human, wolf?, camel, deer, horse?, and dragon. The author identifies the sources of the images, the specifics of the iconography, and the geography of the cultural impact that influenced the evolution of the images in Sayan-Altai art. On the whole it is possible to say that the art was syncretic, whereas the cultural impact came from the south-west and the south-east. The former appears to have been predominant, and the conclusion is supported by the data from the study of the region’s medieval petroglyphs.

Medieval assemblages with temple pendants from the Volga region
Blokhin V.G.,  Petrov P.A.

Key words: temple pendants, Black Klobuk, Polovets, Golden Horde times, ethnic and chronological attribution, migrations.
The article gives a characteristic of the medieval assemblages which contain temple pendants with biconic beads and conic spikes. Historiography gives different chronological attribution (from 12th to 14th cc.) and ethnic identification (Black Klobuk, Polovets, Saksin) for the burials which contain such pendants. The pendants from the Lower Volga show uniform typological and technological characteristics, hence we may assume they belong to a rather narrow chronological horizon. However, the assemblages belong to different types from the point of view of the traditional typology based on the orientation of the corpse and the features of the accompanying horse burial. This typological diversity may point to the heterogeneity of the nomad group that left the assemblages in question. The article substantiates the connection of the assemblages from the Lower Volga with the burials in the river Ros’ region, which indicates that nomads from the Black Klobuk alliance may have moved to the Volga region in Golden Horde times.

Reconstruction of an ossuary from Durmen Tepe in Central Sogdiana
Myagkova O.A.

Key words: Sogdiana, Durmen Tepe, ossuary, restoration, reconstruction.
The fragments of several ossuaries from one and the same mould that were found at Durmen Tepe allowed conducting a full-scale restoration and reconstruction of the object. The restorer worked in close contact with the scientists and used a graphic drawing that showed the exact measurements. The original ceramic pieces were included into the plaster casts of the walls and lid, thus helping create a real and unique museum specimen out of the isolated relief fragments.

New finds of engraved gems and their impressions from Old Termez
Pidaev Sh.R.

Key words: Old Termez, gems, impressions, iconography, technique of the images, chronology.
The article covers the impressions on pottery and the engraved semi-precious gemstones from Old Termez site in Uzbekistan. The author gives detailed descriptions of the images (anthropomorphic figure of a ruler with attributes of power; sitting figure in possibly religious context, with Buddhist attributes; zoomorphic figures (winged stallion, scorpion, hare, and partridge); floral motif of tulip-shaped flower), and of their symbolism. The article offers analogies and datings and identifies the chronological stages within the period from the 3d to the 5th cc. on the basis of the iconography and technique of the images. The author advances the hypothesis that most of the engraved gems were of local manufacture, which indicates development of the jewelry craft in Old Termez in the Early Middle Ages.

Ceramics and the chronology of the residential quarter of Paikend in the 7th–8th cc.
Saparov N.Zh., Torgoev A.I.

Key words: Bukhara, Paikend residential quarter, periodisation of pottery and coins, allocation of the local fire in the residential quarter.
At Paikend (modern Uzbekistan) we have investigated most of the residential quarter of the 7th–8th cc. The quarter was divided into two equal parts by a main wall. The northern part of the large corner house, as well as the neighboring house, revealed evidence of a strong fire, whereas the other houses in the quarter showed none. Analysis of the pottery from the burnt layers and from the rest of the house allowed concluding that the location actually comprised two complexes dating to different periods. The complex that shows traces of fire dates to the middle – third quarter of the 8th c., whereas the other one belongs to the middle of the 7th – beginning of the 8th cc. The dates are confirmed by the distribution of coins in the layers. Contrary to previous assumptions, the fire cannot be interpreted as the one that accompanied the seizure of Paikend by the Arabs in 706, since it was of a local nature.

A previously unknown ornamental motif on carved ganch from Varakhsha
Tsvetkova T.G.

Key words: Bukhara, Varakhsha, carved ganch, ornamental motif, poppyhead.
The article presents a find from the excavations at Varakhsha, the country seat of the early medieval rulers of Bukhara. The Central Asia archaeological expedition of the State Museum of Oriental Arts (Moscow) has collected a large amount of carved ganch elements of architectural decor from the 8th c., the themes and ornamental motifs of which have analogies at Parthian and especially Sassanian sites in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan. One of the themes, a poppyhead, is unique and has no analogies in carved ganch decor.

Mountainous Ustrushana and certain issues of the historical geography of Central Asia
Sverchkov L.M.

Key words: Mawarannahr, Ustrushana, Middle Ages, ironworks, province of Mink, Afshin.
Written sources from the 10th c. indicate that in Ustrushana iron was worked in Mink province and in the city of Mirasmand. Their location is still debatable and remains a pertinent issue due to their outstanding role in the history of Central Asia and to their involvement in the global events that unfolded in the Near and Middle East at the time of the emergence and spread of Islam. Archaeological investigations in the mountains of Western Ustrushana revealed an entire system of ironworks and specialized settlements. The largest one, Myk (Mug), is a unique complex which consists of two castles and an industrial settlement. The chronology of the materials from the site, and their comparison with the data from written sources of the 9th–10th cc., allow identifying Myk mining-and-metallurgical zone with the province of Mink, and the successive castles of Myk with the Afshin’s fortress.

Mesolithic complex with a wolf burial in the Baikal region
Bazaliiski V.I., Losey R.J., Pezhemsky D.V., Garvie-Lok S., Germonpre M., Leonard J.A.

Key words: Mesolithic, ritual burial, wolf.
The article gives a detailed analysis of an unusual burial located in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia on the bank of the river Angara in the Irkut estuary. It included an intentionally buried wolf, a human skull and scattered human bones as well as various implements and a patch of ochre. The grave analysis is based on osteometric work, DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, 14С-dating of wolf and human bones, craniometric characteristic of the human skull, morphological and typological characteristics of the implements. A detailed archaeological description of the burial is given. The research has shown that the wolf bones in grave Locomotiv R-8 belonged to a male animal that died in July or August at the age of 9±1. The cause of death and the subspecies of the animal have not been identified. The human skull is that of a Far Eastern mongoloid. There is a chronological gap between the datings for the human and the wolf bones. The grave can be dated to the Late Mesolithic period and is a ritual burial.

Proto Kura-Araxes ceramics of Nakhchivan
Bakhshaliev V.B.

Key words: Late Chalcolithic, Kura-Araxes culture, Proto Kura-Araxes ceramics, at Ovcular Tepesi, comb ornamentation.
It is known that the issues of the genesis and chronology of Kura-Araxes culture are still debatable. The archaeological research conducted in 2006–2011 at Ovcular Tepesi settlement has yielded important data on the genesis and chronology of Kura-Araxes culture. One of the pottery groups combines the technological and morphological features typical of the Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. This testifies to an interaction, at a certain period of time, between cultures of the Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Analysis of the charcoal from an Early Bronze Age hearth at Ovcular Tepesi allows dating the initial stage of formation of Kura-Araxes culture to 4200–3400 BC. The so-called Proto Kura-Araxes ceramics is also known from the settlements Maxta Kultepe I, Xalac, Karatepe and Sadarak, and from sites in Eastern Anatolia.

Late Prokhorovka burial from the Nagornoye kurgan cemetery in Western Kazakhstan
Gutsalov S.Yu.

Key words: Nagornoye, Prokhorovka culture, burial tradition, catacomb grave, comb, position with the head to the south.
The article publishes certain materials from the Early Iron Age which were discovered in the early 1980th by the Central Kazakhstan expedition, headed by M.K. Kadirbaev, in the upper reaches of the river Ilek in Western Kazakhstan. The article describes secondary burial 1 in burial mound 11 near the village of Nagornoye. The skeleton was placed in a supine position with the head to the south. The finds (bone top of a comb, set of beads, bronze mirror, etc.) and the burial tradition allow identifying the site as a Prokhorovka culture one, and dating it to the 3d – 2nd cc. BC.

Crypt 96 of Levadki cemetery (Central Crimea)
Muld S.A., Kropotov V.V.

Key words: Central Crimea, Late Scythians burial structures, crypts, Late Hellenistic – Roman periods.
The article publishes the results of the investigations at Levadki, a Late Scythian necropolis in central Crimea. Many of the 150 investigated burial structures have sustained damage in recent robberies. Crypt 96 is well preserved and contains two groups of burials from different times. The grave goods allow dating the earlier burials to the last quarter – end of the 1st c. BC or possibly to the beginning of the 1st c. AD, and the later burials to the 2nd c. AD, most probably to its second half. The large chronological gap (about 150 years) between the two burials does not allow considering the buried as representatives of a single family or even clan. It would appear more logical to assume some other reasons for the more recent burials. For instance, by the late 2nd – early 3d c. AD the available space at the cemetery might have been used up. That might have forced the population to resort to burying their dead in the already existing graves.

Horn hatchets from Rozhdestvenskoye settlement
Krylasova N.B.

Key words: Middle Ages, Rodanovo culture, Perm Krai, Rozhdestvenskoye settlement, horn hatchets, children’s toys.
In 2010–2011 two ornamented stone hatchets were found at Rozhdestvenskoye settlement in Perm Krai. In shape, the items replicate real multipurpose and battle axes, and are a unique find for the Cis-Urals region. It is very likely the hatchets were children’s toys. Together with other objects of the same category they help to reconstruct the process of child-rearing and education in ancient times.

“Gnezdovo-type” pendants from the Upper Oka basin
Modin R.N.

Key words: “Gnezdovo-type” pendant, Scandinavian animal style, tin-alloy bronze, import, imitation.
The article presents “Gnezdovo-type” pendants from the Upper Oka basin, giving a description of the finds, reviewing the chronology of their use and citing analogies from other Old Rus sites. The items resemble artifacts in the Scandinavian animal style (Borre, Jelling). The article also gives the results of metallographic analysis of part of the finds.

Pre-Mongol epigraphic find from Rostislavl
Koval’ V.Yu., Medyntseva A.A., Yeremeev A.A.

Key words: archaeological excavations, epigraphic, pottery, dating of complexes, paleography, literacy in Old Rus.
The excavations at a complex from the first half of the 13th c. at Rostislavl (Moscow oblast’) yielded a fragmented pot with an inscription that had been made on the raw clay prior to the baking. The paleographic features of the inscription allow dating it to the end of the 12th – first half of the 13th c. The inscription is in Cyrillic characters and reads that the pot was a present from someone to a person named Yuri. This is the second find of an Old Russian pot that shows an inscription made before baking, whereas the inscription is the first one that allows a clear reading. The find testifies to the fact of widespread literacy in Rus on the eve of the Mongol invasion.

 

 
 

 

     
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