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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2013 г. / № 2 (English)

Number 2, 2013

New data on dwelling complex 3 at Mezhirich Upper Paleolithic site
Sergin V.Ya.

The find from Lugovskoye and the discussion concerning mammoth hunting
Serikov Yu.B.

Concerning the parallels between the Neolithic cult complex at Koksharovsky Kholm and the sanctuaries of indigenous peoples of the Urals in the 19th – 20th cc.
Shorin A.F.

Ceramic assemblage from the Trans-Kuban variant of Northern Caucasus culture
Kleschenko A.A.

Bone spoons from early nomad quivers
Fyodorov V.K.

Paleoethnobotanical materials from Yukhnovo culture sites
Gorbanenko S.A.

“The crown of Janibek” in Russian and foreign historiography
Savelyev N.I.

New Materials on the Archaeology of Uzbekistan

Handicrafts in Ancient Khoresm according to archaeological data: stages of evolution
Bolelov S.B.

Imitation Eucratides obol from Kampyr-Tepe
Gorin A.N.

Clay projectiles from Kampyr-Tepe
Dvurechenskaya N.D., Dvurechensky O.V.

Concerning the image on the horn item from Kalaly-Gyr 2
Ilyasov J.Ya.

Paikend citadel in the 3d – 5th cc.
Omelchenko A.V.

Fayaz-Tepe Buddhist monastery in Northern Bactria: in the light of recent investigations
Mkrtychev T.K.

Publications

Sredny Stog materials from the Upper and Middle Don basin
Skorobogatov A.M., Smolyaninov R.V.

Two Late Roman Pontic Burnished Ware vessel fragments from Chersonesos decorated with Christian motifs
Domżalski K., Zhuravlev D.V.

Thirteenth-century copper kumgan from Veliky Novgorod
Oleinikov O.M., Rudenko K.A.

History of Science

A tribute to Marianna Artashirovna Devlet
Savinov D.G., Dluzhnevskaya G.V.

V.V. Radlov’s expedition in the Baraba forest-steppe
Avtushkova A.L.

Critics and Bibliography

E.V. Kupriyanova. Shadow of a woman: Bronze Age women’s costume as “text” (based on the materials from necropolises in the south Trans-Urals and Kazakhstan). Chelyabinsk, 2008
Rafikova Ya.V.

A.V. Oreshnikov. Diary. 1915 – 1933. In 2 vol. / P.G. Gaidukov, N.L. Zubova, M.V. Katagoschina, N.B. Strizhova, A.G. Yushko. Ed. by P.G. Gaidukov
Schavelev S.P.

Vizgalov G.P., Parkhimovich S.G., Kurbatov A.V. Mangazeya. Leather artifacts (materials from 2001–2007). Yekaterinburg, 2011
Osipov D.O.

Chronicle

The 27th Krupnov readings (Makhachkala, 2012)
Albegova Z.Kh., Korenevsky S.N., Korobov D.S., Leonova E.V., Malashev V.Yu., Gadzhiev M.S.

Ecology of Ancient and Traditional Societies: 4th scientific conference, Tyumen
Matveeva M.P., Demkin V.A.

Jerzy Okulicz-Kozaryn (1931–2012)
Bitner-Wróblevska A., Skvortsov K.N.

In memory of Anzor Semyonovich Agumaa (1958–2012)
Skakov A.Ju., Sangulia G.A., Trebeleva G.V.

Archaeology and burglarions excavations: commentaries to the well-known
Makarov N.A.


Summaries

New data on dwelling complex 3 at Mezhirich Upper Paleolithic site
Sergin V.Ya.

Key words: dwelling complex, enclosure, mammoth skull, hearth, hearth structure, animal bones.
The article is based on the observations which the author made in the course of the excavations conducted by I.G. Pidoplichko in 1972. The author gives additional information on dwelling complex 3 and re-interprets several details connected with it. The remains of the dwelling showed no traces of diluvial impact. The enclosure of the dwelling included 5-6 mammoth skulls. Skull 23, which I.G. Pidoplichko had interpreted as part of the enclosure and the entrance, proved to be a detail of the hearth structure. The above-ground hearth was situated in the center of the dwelling. There are indications that the pit at the northeastern edge of the dwelling, which contained animal bones, was man-made.

The find from Lugovskoye and the discussion concerning mammoth hunting
Serikov Yu.B.

Key words: find from Lugovskoye, mammoth hunting, “mammoth cemetery”, carrion, gathering of bones and bodies of diseased mammoths.
The article analyzes the different viewpoints concerning the possibility of mammoth hunting in the Paleolithic. The issue has become especially acute in the light of the find from Lugovskoye (environs of Khanty-Mansiysk), which is a mammoth’s vertebra showing traces of damage from a hafted tool. Analysis of different aspects of the interaction between humans and mammoth shows that mammoth hunting appears to have taken place in crisis situations only, and the targeted specimens were those already weakened by disease or wounds.

Concerning the parallels between the Neolithic cult complex at Koksharovsky Kholm and the sanctuaries of indigenous peoples of the Urals in the 19th – 20th cc.
Shorin A.F.

Key words: Koksharovsky Kholm, Neolithic cult complex, sanctuary, indigenous peoples of the Urals.
The article considers the parallels between the Neolithic cult complex at Koksharovsky Kholm in the Middle Trans-Urals and the 19th- and 20th-century sanctuaries of the indigenous peoples of the Urals. The parallels are traced on the basis of the main structural components of cult complexes which can be identified at archaeological sites: topography, markers of sacred space and the cult attributes that were used in rituals. The parallels may be connected with the fundamental similarities in worldview which are shared by many archaic and traditional societies, especially in relation to mythology. The similarities are revealed in cult practices, especially in the societies which were based on a hunter-gatherer economy. However, it is possible to interpret these parallels as a manifestation of continuity between the cult traditions of the Neolithic population which left the site of Koksharovsky Kholm, and those of the contemporary peoples of the Urals.

Ceramic assemblage from the Trans-Kuban variant of Northern Caucasus culture
Kleschenko A.A.

Key words: ceramic assemblage, burials, Trans-Kuban variant, Northern Caucasus culture.
The article gives a typological analysis of the pottery assemblage from Northern Caucasus culture burials, Middle Bronze Age. The study is based on the previously unpublished materials from the Trans-Kuban region. The series of ceramic vessels comprises two main types which are divided into four subtypes. The rare forms which are outside the main classification are considered separately. The circle of analogies and the frequency of occurrence of the types and subtypes of ceramics in combination with other categories of grave goods indicate the chronological priority of type II vessels as compared with type I vessels. The originality of the ceramics from the Northern Caucasus culture in the Trans-Kuban region allows interpreting it as a vivid individual component of the material culture of the population of the Northwestern Caucasus in the first half of the 3d millennium BC.

Bone spoons from early nomad quivers
Fyodorov V.K.

Key words: early nomads, bone spoons, quivers, arrows, funeral rite, sacrificial libations.
The article is devoted to the bone spoons from early nomad burials that have been found in quivers or in other connection with arrows. The author lists 72 assemblages which come from an area encompassed by the Lower Don and the Kuban in the west and Ustyurt and Turgai in the east. Most of the investigated burials with spoons in the quivers are in the South Urals and date to the 5th – 3d cc. BC, whereas the earliest date to the 6th c. BC and are located in the Lower Don region. Analysis of the different objects from quiver assemblages has revealed that the spoons were the only non-utilitarian objects, in contrast with most of the finds which were instruments for minor repairs (small touchstones, knives and awls). The author advances the hypothesis that the spoons were used for sacrificial libations in funeral rites.

Paleoethnobotanical materials from Yukhnovo culture sites
Gorbanenko S.A.

Key words: Yukhnovo culture, cultivated plants, paleoethnobotanical spectrum.
The present article is the first specialized study of the cultivated plants in Yukhnovo culture. We have studied the imprints of seeds of cultivated plants on Yukhnovo culture ceramics. The materials come from four sites in the Desna river region near Novgorod Seversky: Kiselevka II, Pesochny Rov, Zapadnoye Yukhnovskoye, Buzhanka I. We have identified three species of cultivated plants: Panicum milliaceum L., Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum dicoccon Shrank. The assemblage of the cultivated plants characterizes the level of agriculture in archaeological cultures of the forest zone in general.

“The crown of Janibek” in Russian and foreign historiography
Savelyev N.I.

Key words: historiography, “The crown of Janibek”, adornment, G. Zwick, J. Stickel, Tsarev site, Lower Volga region, Jena.
The article tells the story of the artifact known in Golden Horde archaeology as “the crown of Janibek”, which became widely known after 1836 when it was brought to Germany. The event provoked the first large-scale archaeological excavations at Tsarev site. The author uses the data from Russian and foreign sources to analyze the circumstances of the crown’s discovery and trace its journey from Tsarev site in the Lower Volga region to Jena. The author analyzes the Russian and German historiography of the artifact, cites its analogies and reconstructs its hypothetical original appearance. Even though the crown is at present considered to be lost, the drawings and photographs allow publishing the artifact.

Handicrafts in Ancient Khoresm according to archaeological data: stages of evolution
Bolelov S.B.

Key words: Early Iron Age, historic-cultural area, settlement, production center, paleoeconomics, pottery handicraft, smithing process.
The article uses archaeological data to analyze the early phase in the development of handicrafts in Khoresm over a long period of time. Community handicrafts emerged there in the Late Bronze Age. Powerful cultural impact from the southern regions of Central Asia in the Early Iron Age contributed to the creation of production centers, where professional craftsmen produced goods for the market. The time period in question appears to mark the beginning of handicraft trades in Khoresm.

Imitation Eucratides obol from Kampyr-Tepe
Gorin A.N.

Key words: Kampyr-Tepe, southern Uzbekistan, Greco-Bactria, Great Yuezhi, political events, determine the political boundaries, minting, Eucratides’ obols, imitations.
Investigations at Kampyr-Tepe in southern Uzbekistan have been conducted for over 30 years. Every year the excavations brought new and often unique finds. The latter include the small silver coin found at the citadel of Kampyr-Tepe in 2004. The coin is an imitation of an obol of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides (circa 171–145 BC). The article tells of the political events connected with the fall of Greco-Bactria and the emergence and history of the Great Yuezhi state. One of the markers to determine the political boundaries and territories of the Great Yuezhi is the distribution areas of coins from certain groups of imitations. The article discusses the features of minting and the area of “barbarian” imitations, mainly Eucratides’ obols. On the basis of the analysis of all the data the author concludes that at present it would be premature to assume the existence of a political entity which facilitated their coinage.

Clay projectiles from Kampyr-Tepe
Dvurechenskaya N.D., Dvurechensky O.V.

Key words: clay projectiles, weight and size characteristics, Kampyr-Tepe, Northern Bactria, Hellenistic and Kushan times.
The fortress of Kampyr-Tepe in Uzbekistan is an outstanding archaeological site from the Hellenistic and Kushan times on the territory of Northern Bactria. The authors have weighed and measured 106 clay projectiles of the 256 whole and fragmented sling and catapult projectiles that were found at the site, and have identified three groups according to weight and size. The sling as a mass projectile weapon is known in Central Asia starting from the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The fact that series of sling projectiles are not encountered in strata at Kampyr-Tepe after the 2nd c. BC is not a general regularity. However, the authors believe that the sling could have become a less popular weapon due to the spreading of the Hun bow which was brought to the territory of Bactria by Yuezhi tribes.

Concerning the image on the horn item from Kalaly-Gyr 2
Ilyasov J.Ya.

Key words: Khoresm, Kalaly-Gyr 2, deer horn, engraved images, nomads, weapons, costume, horse harness.
The recently published horn artifact from Kalaly-Gyr site in left-bank Khoresm is decorated with engraved images, which are of great historical and cultural interest. To our knowledge, the existing studies on the artifact offer interpretations of the themes, whereas the actual realities depicted, and their analogies, have not been analyzed in detail. The article attempts to fill this gap using other well-known carved bone items from Central Asia, namely, Orlat and Takhti-Sangin belt plaques.

Paikend citadel in the 3d – 5th cc.
Omelchenko A.V.

Key words: Sogdia, Bukhara oasis, Late Classical period, new investigations, cult architecture, fortification, ceramic finds, numismatic finds.
The article covers the results of new investigations at the citadel of Paikend, an ancient city in the south of Bukhara oasis (modern Uzbekistan). The earliest structures (3d – 4th cc.) that have been investigated are the temple and the defensive walls with adjacent buildings. The details of the temple’s layout confirm its suggested attribution as a Zoroastrian fire temple of a type which finds parallels in Iranian cult architecture. The premises adjacent to the fortress walls are currently being investigated and appear to have housed the garrison. The available data indicates that a lot of construction work was done at the citadel in late antiquity. The author advances the hypothesis that the phenomenon may have been connected with the expansion of Sassanian Iran into the Bukhara oasis.

Fayaz-Tepe Buddhist monastery in Northern Bactria: in the light of recent investigations
Mkrtychev T.K.

Key words: Central Asia, history of Buddhist sites, Kushan Empire, Fayaz-Tepe Buddhist monastery, dating, periodization.
The article cites different views on the history of Fayaz-Tepe Buddhist monastery in Old Termez, which is one of the key Buddhist sites in Northern Bactria. L.I. Albaum conducted archaeological excavations at the monastery in 1968–1976. The author of the excavations published a series of articles which reconstruct the history of the monastery. The additional excavations that were conducted during the restoration works in 2002–2006 yielded important new material concerning the history of the site and the details of its layout. In view of the new data that has been published, the author of the present article offers his version of the history of Fayaz-Tepe Buddhist monastery.

Sredny Stog materials from the Upper and Middle Don basin
Skorobogatov A.M., Smolyaninov R.V.

Key words: Chalcolithic, Sredny Stog culture, Upper and Middle Don, archaeological site.
Since its discovery, Sredny Stog culture has been the focus of attention of the scientists who research the Chalcolithic of the steppe and forest-steppe in the Dnieper-Don-Volga interfluve area. It is connected with the main issues of Chalcolithic archaeology in the East European steppe and forest-steppe zones: the development of production economy, domestication of the horse and its use for riding, the genesis of the Yamna cultural and historical community, changes in the social structure of ancient society, etc. Unfortunately, most of the sources which are connected with Sredny Stog culture in the basin of the Upper and Middle Don have not been widely available to archaeologists. Due to this circumstance, the basin of the Upper and Middle Don is interpreted, primarily by Ukrainian scientists, as a fringe territory where no significant Sredny Stog sites can be found. The present article is an attempt to rectify the situation. The authors list and give a brief description of all the currently known sites in the Upper and Middle Don which contain Sredny Stog culture material.

Two Late Roman Pontic Burnished Ware vessel fragments from Chersonesos decorated with Christian motifs
Domżalski K., Zhuravlev D.V.

Key words: Chersonesos, Christian motifs, cross, Late Roman Pontic Burnished Ware (LRPB), sgraffito technique, Early Byzantine pottery.
The paper describes decorated fragments of two dishes found in Chersonesos during regular excavations directed by K.K. Kostsyushko-Valyuzhinich in 1899. The finds represent the recently identified group of fine ceramics called Late Roman Pontic Burnished Ware. They are characterized by very refined, pale pinkishlight brownish clay containing some very fine flakes of mica and single lumps of lime of various sizes. The inside surface is carefully burnished producing a slight lustre and contains elaborated decoration executed by delicate incising in dried clay after burnishing and before firing (sgraffito-like technique). In both cases the decorative composition contains a centrally placed big jewelled cross, flanked by palm-branches of similar size. The central composition is surrounded by two concentric grooved lines accompanied by a long spiral scratched on their outside. The outer surface of the examined dishes was finished with less care, it has some turning marks and dull appearance. Because of the excellent quality, for many decades the Late Roman Pontic Burnished vessels were described in publications as red slip pottery. The vast majority of finds come from Chersonesos, but they are also known from several sites in the area of Bosporos Kimmerikos (the Kerch Strait). The archaeological contexts of these discoveries indicate that the ware in question emerged on the Black Sea regional fineware market in the second quarter of the 6th century AD and remained an object of trade exchange at least until the end of that century. The production centre of these vessels remains unknown but the close similarity in fabric to the previously (4th – 5th c. AD) popular fineware group called Pontic Red Slip Ware hypothetically indicates its location in the southern Black Sea coastal areas or their hinterland. The decorative composition of the dishes found in Chersonesos, derived, despite the difference in applied technique, from the most successfully traded across the Late Roman empire the African Red Slip Ware plates form 104, stamped in Style E(ü), according to J.W. Hayes. This influence, as well as the context of a single parallel find of a decorated Late Roman Pontic Burnished Ware dish from the Dzhurg Oba necropolis in Bosporos Kimmerikos, suggest the approximate dating of the described vessels to the reign of Justinian the Great.

Thirteenth-century copper kumgan from Veliky Novgorod
Oleinikov O.M., Rudenko K.A.

Key words: Veliky Novgorod, Desyatinny 4 excavation site, copper kumgan of the 13th  century.
The 2010 excavations at Desyatinny 4 excavation site in Veliky Novgorod yielded a copper vessel of truncated cone shape and with a cylindrical neck. The height of the vessel is 20.5 cm. The bottom is of convex shape with a slightly concave flattened part in the center, the lip is cone-shaped, about 10 cm long, with a slight upward curve. The handle is not preserved, yet the traces of soldering on the vessel allow assuming that the handle was at least 10.5 cm long. Metal kumgans (jars) were a typical item of material culture of the Muslim Orient in the Middle Ages. In size, technology and shape the kumgan from Novgorod is analogous to copper vessels of the second half of the 13th – the beginning of the 15th cc. It belongs to the circle of everyday copper ware of the Oriental type, which in Eastern Europe was manufactured in the Bulgaria ulus during the Golden Horde time, and in Bulgaria Volga before that.

 
 

 

     
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II Международный научный семинар 
«Полевые исследования памятников I тыс. н. э. в лесной и лесостепной зонах Восточной Европы» 23 марта 2017 г., Институт археологии РАН

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

Международная научная конференция "Археологические исследования в России: новые материалы и интерпретации" 1-2 марта 2017 г., ИА РАН, ул. Дм. Ульянова, д. 19, 4 этаж, конференц-зал

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

15-е заседание научного семинара «Археология Подмосковья». Институт археологии РАН, 20-22 февраля 2017

 
   
 
 
     

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