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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2012 г. / № 1 (English)

Number 1, 2012

Early Jomon pottery (based on material from Ookubo site)
Zhushchikhovskaya I.S.

Late Eneolithic kurgan cemetery near the village of Soyug Bulag in Azerbaijan
Museibli N.A.

Bit from the Lugovskoy cemetery: concerning equestrian and equine images in Ananyino art
Chizhevsky A.A., Shatalov V.A.

Black-figured Attic (Cassel) cups from the North Pontic region in the State Hermitage
Petrakova A.E.

Corinthian vases with ornamental painting in the white style
Bukina A.G.

“Collective” burials in the necropolis near Zaozernoye village in northwestern Crimea
Popova E.A.

Late Zarubintsy sites of the Rakhny type and their correlation with the Sarmatian antiquities from the Southern Bug – Dniester interstream area
Voronyatov S.V.

Ethnic and cultural interaction during the Great Migration period: archeometallographic data (based on materials from the Volga-Kama and Oka regions)
Zav’yalov V.I., Rozanova L.S. , Terekhova N.N.

On the cultural attribution of the gold objects from Brut 1 burial ground in North Ossetia
Gabuev T.A.

Chronological indicators in the burial inventory excavated in 1935 at Galiat crypt in the Digorskoye gorge (North Ossetia)
Kadieva А.А.

Natural environment, soils and architectural peculiarities of Korobovy Khutora fortified settlement in Kharkov oblast’ (issues pertaining to integrated study)
Chendev Yu.G., Koloda V.V.

Publications

Mesolithic horn sockets from the Upper Volga region
Averin V.A., Averina A.V., Utkin A.V.

Jurchen warrior armor
Artemyeva N.G., Prokopets S.D.

Leather footwear from burials at the Martirievskaya porch of St. Sophia cathedral in Novgorod
Osipov D.O.

Notes

Hoard of cutting tools from the South Urals
Mosin V.S., Zaitsev I.A.

Towards the issue of Bronze Age sites of the Kozhumberdy type in the Urals-Mugodzhary region
Tkachev V.V.

History of Science

Antiquities of the Gorbunovsky peat bog: history of discovery and conservation
Ryzhkova O.V., Chernenko E.A.

Burial with assemblage of figurate polychrome vessels from Phanagoria, 1852: towards the history of the discovery
Zastrozhnova E.G.

Critics and Bibliography

Proceedings of the International ‘C14 and Archaeology’ symposium, Zurich, Switzerland, 2008
Kuzmin Ya.V.

Certain research topics in the archaeology of Southeast Asia
Zakharov A.O.

Platonova N.I. ”The History of Archaeological Thought in Russia. Second half of the 19th c. – first third of the 20th c.” St. Petersburg, 2010
Smirnov A.S.

Chronicle

International scientific conference “The 26th Krupnov Readings” on North Caucasian archaeology. Magas, 2010
Albegova Z.Kh., Bagaev M.Kh., Gadiev U.B., Korenevsky S.N., Korobov D.S., Skakov A.Yu.

“New Materials and Methods of Archaeological Investigation: Scientific Conference of Young Scientists”. Moscow, 2011
Rodinkova V.E., Kuzmina Yu.N., Voroshilova O.M., Kochkarov U.Yu.

Summaries

Early Jomon pottery (based on material from Ookubo site)
Zhushchikhovskaya I.S.

Key words: Japanese archipelago, Neolithic, Early period of the Jomon culture, Ookubo archaeological site, pottery, Lower Ento ceramic style.
The paper considers the archaeological materials from Ookubo (northern Honshu island, Japanese archipelago). The site has materials from the Early and Middle periods of the Jomon culture. The paper focuses on the Early Jomon pottery collection, which comprises a series of 50 vessels. The vessels are attributed to Lower Ento ceramic style which is encountered in Tohoku (northern Honshu) and southern Hokkaido. Their technological, morphological and decorative features share some common traits with some other Jomon ceramic styles and at the same time show certain specifics of Lower Ento style.

Late Eneolithic kurgan cemetery near the village of Soyug Bulag in Azerbaijan
Museibli N.A.

Key words: Southern Caucasus, Late Eneolithic, Leilatepe culture, Soyug Bulag burial mounds, burial rite, migrations of population groups.
The excavations at Soyug Bulag cemetery have added to our knowledge of the Leilatepe Eneolithic archaeological culture in Azerbaijan, for which most of the hitherto available material came from settlements. The article presents the results of excavations at 18 settlements (2005). The specific features of the burial rite have analogies in the Maikop culture of the Caucasus. Some archaic tools made of obsidian and flint are typical of the Neolithic and indicate the genetic affinity between the Leilatepe and Maikop cultures, as well as Mesopotamian cultures (Ubaid, Uruk). Radiocarbon analysis has confirmed that the mounds at Soyug Bulag date to the first half of the 4th millennium BC. Investigations at the mounds revealed that the history of burial mounds in the Southern Caucasus is over a thousand years longer than previously assumed, and yielded important data for researching the migrations of certain population groups from Mesopotamia to the Caucasus in the 4th millennium BC.

Bit from the Lugovskoy cemetery: concerning equestrian and equine images in Ananyino art
Chizhevsky A.A., Shatalov V.A.

Key words: Ananyino art, bits, equine and equstrian images, dynamic and static poses, style.
The authors analyze the evolution of equestrian and equine imagery in Ananyino art on the basis of the horn bit found in burial 82 at the Lugoskoy cemetery, which belongs to the Ananyino cultural and historical area and dates to the 6th c. BC. The analysis has revealed a specific feature of Ananyino equine images, which depict only the head of the horse and not the body, a tradition which is probably related to the antiquities of the south of Eastern Europe. The equstrian image has no analogies and must have evolved in the Ananyino cultural and historical area. Equine images underwent certain changes during the transition from the 6th to the 5th cc. BC. The reason for that was the changed vector of cultural relations, which shifted from the south to the east of Eurasia. The equestrian image from Glyadenovskoye site is a typical Late Ananyino artifact. Further evolution of equestrian and equine images in the Volga-Kama region already belongs to Glyadenovskoye time, 2nd c. BC – 3d c. AD, when the flowing lines typical of Ananyino art were replaced by angular ones.

Black-figured Attic (Cassel) cups from the North Pontic region in the State Hermitage
Petrakova A.E.

Key words: Cassel cups, typology and classification of Attic pottery, black-figured pottery, State Hermitage, North Pontic region, H.A.G. Brijder’s classification, export of Attic pottery in Archaic period.
In his article in Bulletin Antieke Beschaving 68 (1993), Professor H.A.G. Brijder established the typology of Cassel cups. Cassel cups and fragments in the State Hermitage museum allow us to come back to the question. The first aim of this article is to draw particular attention to several items which, being in some aspects unique, can contribute new data to the typology. The second aim is to contribute to our understanding of the distribution of the Cassel cups in the Ancient world, since most of the Hermitage cups and fragments were excavated in the Black Sea region, namely in the settlements of Olbia and Pantikapaion and on Berezan island.

Corinthian vases with ornamental painting in the white style
Bukina A.G.

Key words: Ancient Greece, North Pontic region, Corinthian vases with ornamental painting, ‘White style’, State Hermitage.
The author of the article considers the classification of Corinthian pottery vessels of the 6th century BC painted in the so-called ‘White style’. The term ‘White style’ is summarized as it had been developed in the archaeological publications from1930s to 1990s. The author analyses 13 pieces belonging to the State Hermitage collection intending to demonstrate the basic method of dating of the vases of such style.

“Collective” burials in the necropolis near Zaozernoye village in northwestern Crimea
Popova E.A.

Key words: northwestern Crimea, Classical antiquity, Chaika fortified settlement, necropolis, burial rite, Greeks, Late Scythians, Tauri.
The necropolis near the village of Zaozernoye in northwestern Crimea is located 1.5 km away from Chaika fortified settlement. The group of kurgans stands on the territory of an ancient stone quarry. It has burial structures of three types which hold so-called collective burials. The structures contain from 3 to 13 bodies, with the burials dating to different times. The earliest burials date to the end of the 4th – 3d cc. BC. The structures were used throughout the period of existence of the Greek settlement, until the third quarter of the 2nd c. BC. Afterwards they were used by the new population, the so-called Late Scythians, during the 1st c. BC – 1st c. AD. The second and third types of the crypts are connected with burial traditions of the Bosporan population. The diversity of the burial rites shows that the population at Chaika was polyethnic.

Late Zarubintsy sites of the Rakhny type and their correlation with the Sarmatian antiquities from the Southern Bug – Dniester interstream area
Voronyatov S.V.

Key words: Late Zarubintsy sites of the Rakhny type, Sarmatians, fibula, tribute dependence, metallurgical center, open settlements, burial site, burial mounds.
The article considers the possible correlation between post-Zarubintsy sites of the Rakhny type (1st – 2nd cc. AD) with the Sarmatian antiquities of the Southern Bug – Dniester interstream area (Porogi, Grushka, Pisarevka, Severinovka, Gordeevka, Mokra). Detailed analysis of objects of personal attire from the post-Zarubintsy settlements of Maryanovka, Rakhny, Nosovtsy, Parkhomovka and the burial site at Rakhny showed that many categories of the items have analogies in the Middle Sarmatian culture. This could indicate close contacts between the sedentary and the nomadic populations of the Southern Bug and Dniester regions in the 1st – beginning of the 2nd cc. AD. It is possible that the post-Zarubintsy population paid tribute to the Sarmatians. The remains of metallurgical centers that were investigated near Uman’ could reflect the results of such contacts between the nomads and the post-Zarubintsy population. Tribute to nomad tribes was often paid in metal. The artifacts which are considered in the present article could have found their way to the sedentary population as a result of such contacts.

Ethnic and cultural interaction during the Great Migration period: archeometallographic data (based on materials from the Volga-Kama and Oka regions)
Zav’yalov V.I., Rozanova L.S. , Terekhova N.N.

Key words: Great Migration period, Volga-Kama region, blacksmithing inventory, Rjazan’- Oka cemeteries.
The technical and technological characteristics of the blacksmithing inventory from sites dating to the Great Migration period in the Volga-Kama and Oka regions testify that the new types of iron artifacts which appeared on these territories during the time in question differ from local artifacts in both morphology and technology, and can serve as an additional source for the study of ethnic and cultural contacts.

On the cultural attribution of the gold objects from Brut 1 burial ground in North Ossetia
Gabuev T.A.

Key words: Alans, Iran, Sassanid Empire, Byzantine, polychrome style of Hunnic period, garnets, seeded ornament.
In 1989 kurgan № 2 was excavated near the village of Brut in North Ossetia. Inside the kurgan was a catacomb dating to the 5th c. AD and a cache of gold objects inlaid with garnets. We assume that all the objects are of Iranian origin. The centerpiece of the assemblage is a sword with gold-overlaid hilt and sheath. The style of the objects is polychrome. The objects show two stylistic peculiarities: 1) bezel and cloisonné inlays on the same item, and 2) cloisonné in combination with seeded ornament. Objects which have such stylistic peculiarities have been found in the Caucasus, the Urals-Kama region, Kazakhstan, Central Asia and the Middle East, and are of Iranian origin. The garnets from Brut have been identified as andradites. Andradite deposits exist in Armenia, which was part of the Sassanid Empire, and hence the material for crafting the precious objects was available.

Chronological indicators in the burial inventory excavated in 1935 at Galiat crypt in the Digorskoye gorge (North Ossetia)
Kadieva А.А.

Key words: Early Middle Ages, North Ossetia, Digorskoye gorge, village of Galiat, Alans, belt sets, weapons, horse harness.
The article covers the elements of the belt sets and horse bridle from the Alanic crypt excavated by E.I. Krupnov near the village of Galiat (Digorskoye gorge, North Ossetia) in 1935. The mixed inventory from the crypt allowed nonetheless to identify two belt sets and to determine the assemblages of origin for the weapons and the horse harness. On the basis of analogies the material has been assigned to two periods: late 7th – early 8th and middle – first quarter of the 8th c. The older artifacts from the crypt are belt-ends with imitation seeded ornament, plain round plates and plates with cruciform-and-rhombic ornamentation. The youngest finds from the burial are the saber and the arch-shaped stirrups, which show an affinity with antiquities of the Saltovo-Mayaki culture. The plates decorated with converging loops and the horseshoe-shaped plates also date to that time. In the light of the above, the optimum absolute date for the Galiat crypt is the second – third quarter of the 8th century.

Natural environment, soils and architectural peculiarities of Korobovy Khutora fortified settlement in Kharkov oblast’ (issues pertaining to integrated study)
Chendev Yu.G., Koloda V.V.

Key words: fortified settlement, buried soil, artificially modified relief, natural environment, Saltovo and Romny archaeological cultures.
At the archaeological site of Korobovy Khutora (far south forest-steppe of the Mid-Russian plain) we have studied the artificially modified relief and the soils, and reconstructed the appearance of the relief and the landscape for different periods of the settlement’s existence. Comparison of the contemporary and the buried soils has shown that at the beginning of the Early Iron Age the soil cover still retained the features of steppe soil formation that had existed in the Bronze Age. In the early Middle Ages (Saltovo and Romny archaeological cultures) and in later periods the territory was covered with broad-leaf forests. The article offers a reconstruction of the surface relief profile for the southwestern front of the settlement at different periods of its existence.

Mesolithic horn sockets from the Upper Volga region
Averin V.A., Averina A.V., Utkin A.V.

Key words: Mesolithic, Upper Volga region, Kunda culture, Butovo culture, Veretje culture, horn sockets, adzes, axes.
The article publishes a series of specific Early Mesolithic items, namely, horn sockets for cutting tools, which were found in the Upper Volga region but have not been fully published so far. The article lists both sockets from stationary excavations at peat bog sites and chance finds. The latter allow to ascertain the area where such items are encountered. The article gives detailed descriptions of the sockets and lists a wide range of analogies.

Jurchen warrior armor
Artemyeva N.G., Prokopets S.D.

Key words: defensive armor, Jurchen, Far East archaeology, Jin Dynasty, state of Eastern Xia, cuirasse, helmet, medieval fortified settlements in Primorye, reconstruction of defensive armor.
Investigations at fortified settlements of the Jurchen state of Eastern Xia (1215 – 1233) in Primorye yielded new finds of defensive armor. The helmets have hemispherical forged iron domes, the circle for aventail attachment was riveted to the bottom edge. The other finds include iron masks and cuirasses. Of especial interest is the lamellar sleeveless jacket fastened on the left side, which provided for two U-shaped underarm plates. The shoulders and arms were protected by shoulder- and armguards; the lower part of the body was protected by a skirt, which consisted of several parts. The unique finds from the medieval fortified settlements in Primorye allow reconstructing most of the defensive armor and identifying its characteristic traits.

Leather footwear from burials at the Martirievskaya porch of St. Sophia cathedral in Novgorod
Osipov D.O.

Key words: Martirievskaya porch, St. Sophia cathedral in Novgorod, leather footwear, burials, stone sarcophagi.
The article gives a description and attribution of the footwear found in 1999 in the course of architectural and archaeological investigations at Martirievskaya porch of St. Sophia cathedral in Novgorod. Seven stone sarcophagi yielded everyday and ritual footwear, which gives additional information on the topography of the pantheon. The most interesting find is that of leather boots with textile edging. Analysis of their design allows reconsidering the interpretation of the burial as that of Metropolotan Varlaam, who died in 1601.

 
 

 

     
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