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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2012 г. / № 3 (English)

Number 3, 2012

The social structure of the Fatyanovo culture population
Volkova E.V.

On the history of the finds from Litoy (Melgunovsky) mound
Babenko L.I.

New data on crop farming in Milogradskaya culture
Loshenkov M.I.

Graves with horse remains from the Sambia peninsula (Alleika 3 cemetery, 1st millennium AD)
Skvortsov K.N.

On the agriculture of Alans in the Kislovodsk basin in the 1st millennium AD
Korobov D.S., Borisov A.V.

Chinese influence in the culture of Central Asian nomad peoples of the pre-Mongol period
Barinova E.B.

Children’s burials from the Pyatnitsky excavation site in Staraya Russa: an archaeological commentary to the first Novgorod chronicle
Toropova E.V., Buzhilova A.P.

New Data on Byzantine Archaeology

The Christian church near Veseloye village: a preliminary publication of the results of the 2010 excavations
Armarchuk E.A., Mimokhod R.A., Sedov Vl.V.

Two clay ampulles with image of St. Minas from the Crimea
Zhuravlev D.V.

The Bambora church and Kuppelhalle in Byzantium and the Caucasus
Vinogradov A.Yu., Beletsky D.V.

Western Transcaucasia and Cappadocia: certain iconographic parallels from the time of the Macedonian dynasty
Yundoltseva E.Yu.

Natural Science Methods: Studies by Young Scientists

Manufacturing technology of the ornaments from Mamisondon cemetery (North Ossetia)
Stolyarova D.A.

New anthropological materials of Saltovo-Mayatsk culture from Upper Saltov-IV cemetery
Reshetova I.K.

The impact of cattle-grazing on the vegetation dynamics of Negev desert (Israel) in the Holocene according to palynological and archaeological data
Babenko A.N.

Pedological and geochemical studies of the occupation deposits in Veliky Novgorod (Ilmensky excavation site)
Dolgikh A.V.

Hunting of ringed seal (Pusa hispida by ancient Eskimos of the Chukotka in the late Holocene
Gorlova E.N.

History of Science

Archaeological sites near Tyunino village on the Upper Don: history of research and current state
Bessudnov A.N., Zakharova E.Yu.

Critics and Bibliography

Germania–Sarmatia II: collected studies on the archaeology of Central and East European peoples. In memoriam M.B. Schukin. Kaliningrad; Kursk, 2010
Mastykova A.V.

History of the Bashkir people. V. 1. M., 2009
Gorbunov V.S., Ivanov V.A., Obydennova G.T., Korenyako V.A.

Gavrilyuk N.A., Ibragimova A.M. The türbe of Haji Gherai Khan (based on the materials from the 2003–2008 archaeological investigations). Kiev; Zaporozhye, 2010
Kirilko V.P.

Chronicle

German Archaeology Congress (Bremen, 2011)
Sveshnikova O.S.

In memory of Nikolai Yakovlevich Merpert
Munchaev R.M.

Leopold Dmitrievich Sulerzhitsky
Colleagues and friends

In memory of Demur Semyenovuch Bzhania
Skakov A.Yu., Dzhopua A.I., Agumaa A.S.

In memory of Olga Nikolaevna Aksyonova
Editorial staff

List of Abbreviations


Summaries

The social structure of the Fatyanovo culture population
Volkova E.V.

Key words: Bronze Age, Central East Europe, Fatyanovo culture, Volosovo-Danilovsky cemetery, social structure, social stratification, funeral rite, pottery.
The article reconstructs the social structure of Fatyanovo society based on the material from Volosovo-Danilovsky cemetery, a major burial site in Yaroslavl Oblast. The author uses all the available informationon the cemetery, including its planigraphy, the funeral rite, the age-and-gender structure. Especial attention is given to pottery analysis. The author studies the family structure and the social hierarchy of Fatyanovo society.

On the history of the finds from Litoy (Melgunovsky) mound
Babenko L.I.

Key words: Melgunov hoard, Litoy mound, Scythians, Hermitage, Kharkov Historical Museum, Parity Commission.
In 1763 A.P. Melgunov gave orders to excavate the Litoy mound, which event marks the emergence of Scythology. The finds were transported to the Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg, and later became part of the collection of the Imperial Hermitage. In 1932 the Parity Commission ruled that part of the Melgunov hoard be transported from the Hermitage to the Kharkov Historical Museum in the Ukraine. For many years the Kharkov part of the Melgunov hoard was considered lost in the Great Patriotic War. However, several objects from the assemblage have been discovered in the vaults of the Kharkov Historical Museum. The objects comprise a leg of a throne stool and fragments of three silver tubes, and help clarify the location where the hoard was stored.

New data on crop farming in Milogradskaya culture
Loshenkov M.I.

Key words: Milogradskaya culture, archaeobotany, collections, imprints of grains on crockery, species of cereals, paleoethnobotanic spectrum, paleoethnobotanic complex, organic impurities.
The occupation layer at sites of the Milogradskaya culture (7th – 3d cc. BC) in South Belarus has not preserved any grains. Hence, the imprints of grains on crockery are a very valuable resource. The author has studied the collections of pottery (44517 items) from 15 ancient settlements (tables 1, 2). They are located in the western part of the Gomel region of Belarus: 9 on the right bank of the Dnieper and 6 to the east of the Polesye lowlands.
One thousand and twenty-seven imprints of grains have been identified on 854 fragments of vessels in the laboratory of flora and classification of plants of the Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. They belong to three species of cereals: millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) – 918, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) – 26 and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – 15. The cultured crops include two species of beans: peas (Pisum sativum L.) – 2 and bean (Vicia faba L.) – 4. The imprints of cultivated crops comprise 94% of all the plants. Six per cent of the imprints are from 10 species of weeds, including rye (Secale cereale L.).

Graves with horse remains from the Sambia peninsula (Alleika 3 cemetery, 1st millennium AD)
Skvortsov K.N.

Key words: Roman period, Sambia, graves with horse remains, Wielbark culture, Przeworsk culture, amber trade.
Of the 554 burials investigated at Aleika 3 cemetery, 517 date to the 2nd – beginning of the 5th cc., and 37 – to the end of the 11th – the 12th c. The grave goods from some of the earlier burials allow assuming that the community to which the site belonged could have been a polyethnic one, most probably including representatives of the Wielbark culture in a Baltic milieu. In the group of older graves (2nd – beginning of the 5th cc.), horses have been found in 52 of the men’s burials, most of which (48 out of 52) date to the end of the 2nd – beginning of the 3d cc. The numerous analogies from the Danube region and the chronology of the oldest burials allow assuming that the ritual had found its way to Sambia as a result of Germanic-Sarmatian contacts in the time of Marcomanni wars. The abundant finds of imported Roman goods, including luxury items, most probably indicate that the community was an active participant in the amber trade.

On the agriculture of Alans in the Kislovodsk basin in the 1st millennium AD
Korobov D.S., Borisov A.V.

Key words: Kislovodsk basin, Alans, agriculture, Early Middle Ages, lynchets, Celtic fields.
The investigations conducted by the authors in the Kislovodsk basin in 2005–2010 have shown that in the 1st millennium AD the Alanic population used two types of agricultural plots: long narrow ploughable terraces on smooth slopes and small rectangular or square plots with low stone walls as boundaries (types 2 and 3 of agricultural plots in the Kislovodsk basin). Analogies of such agricultural plots can be found in Europe (socalled lynchets and Celtic fields). The authors are of the opinion that the fi rst type of agricultural plot could have existed in the first half of the 1st millennium AD or in the 10th–12th cc., and the second – in the 5th–8th cc. Instead of being an indicator of regression, the fact that in the middle of the 1st millennium AD the tools used for tillage became more primitive and the technologies of land farming became simpler appears to indicate how the population adapted to the new landscape.

Chinese influence in the culture of Central Asian nomad peoples of the pre-Mongol period
Barinova E.B.

Key words: Chine, nomad peoples, Central Asia, Zhetysu, Central Tian Shan, pre-Mongolian, material culture, cultural contacts.
The influence of Chinese material culture in Central Asia was the key factor due to which sedentary settlements and certain crafts and building technologies appeared among the nomad peoples. The currently available data shows that whereas the nomads did import some of the ancient Chinese symbolical and mystical elements, they did not borrow the religious notions in their entirety. The strongest contacts of the Chinese civilization and the nomad peoples took place during the periods of Xiongnu dominance in Central Asia and the existence of the Kyrgyz state. East Asian influence on the material culture of Central Asian nomads was insignificant during the periods of weakening of the Chinese state and resistance against contacts with it on the part of Juan-Juan and Turkic peoples, the Uyghur Khaganate and Mongolian tribes.

Children’s burials from the Pyatnitsky excavation site in Staraya Russa: an archaeological commentary to the first Novgorod chronicle
Toropova E.V., Buzhilova A.P.

Key words: Staraya Russa, Old Russian town, усадьба, children’s burials, paleoanthropology, paleopathology, scurvy.
In Old Russian towns, anthropological materials are usually encountered in necropolises or in layers of wartime wreckage. When found elsewhere in the occupation layer, they usually signify emergencies accompanied by loss of life. In the light of the above, the 2010 find of two well-preserved children’s burials under a nondomestic log building from the first third of the 13th c. is of much interest. The article gives the archaeological context of the find and offers an anthropological analysis and interpretation. The anthropological analysis suggests acute scurvy, probably resulting from starvation, as the possible cause of death. The finds from Staraya Russa are a vivid illustration to the first Novgorod chronicle, which tells of two cases of famine resulting from crop failures after spring frost: in 1215–1216 and 1228–1230.

The Christian church near Veseloye village: a preliminary publication of the results of the 2010 excavations
Armarchuk E.A., Mimokhod R.A., Sedov Vl.V.

Key words: Byzantine architecture, Abkhazian architectural influence, church archaeology, Christian graves, iconography.
The article is a preliminary publication of a Middle Byzantine architectural monument excavated in 2010–2011. The monument dates to the 9th–10th cc. It belongs to the group of churches that are typical of the Abkhazian kingdom yet also shares some common features with the churches of Alania. The church is a rather large edifice of the cross-in-square type, with three apses, a narthex and three forechurches. Among the original features are the vaulted burial space under the narthex and the well which is to the south of the narthex. The domes appear to have been supported by columns not piers, which is not typical of the other churches in the region.

Two clay ampulles with image of St. Minas from the Crimea
Zhuravlev D.V.

Key words: ampulles, St. Minas, Christianity, pilgrimage, Early Byzantine Chersonesos, Bosporus.
The article is devoted to two with image of St. Menas from the State Historical Museum, which were found in Chersonesos and in Bosporus in the late 19th c. Pilgrims used such ampulles for holy water or oil from the monastery of Abu Menas in Egypt in the 6th – first half of the 7th cc. AD.

The Bambora church and Kuppelhalle in Byzantium and the Caucasus
Vinogradov A.Yu., Beletsky D.V.

Key words: Abkhazia, Abkhazian kingdom, Kakheti, Tao-Klarjeti, Armenia, Byzantium, architecture, churches, Kuppelhalle, epigraphic.
The article is devoted to a little-studied monument of Abkhazian architecture, the church on cape Bambora (Aylaga-Abyku). Despite the opinion of earlier scholars, it proved to be a Kuppelhalle from the first half of the 10th c. (dated on the basis of the ktitor inscription of the Abkhazian king). The church complex was of a monasterial or palatial nature. The article also investigates the possible model for the Bambora church and the genesis of Kuppelhalle in the Caucasus and Byzantium. Despite the ideas from the time of J. Strzygowski, this architectural type goes back to Roman architecture and manifested itself as early as the turn of the 4th and 5th cc. (Marialba in Spain), spreading further to Apulia, Greece, Balkans, Asia Minor and Cyprus. The first Kuppelhalle in the Caucasus were built in Armenia in the 7th c. (Aruch). They found their way to Georgia through Tao-Klarjeti and the Abkhazian kingdom. The synthesis of Byzantine and East Georgian elements created the unique Kuppelhalle in Vachnadziani (10th c.). The church at Bambora proves to be part of the Byzantinizing architecture of the Abkhazian kingdom.

Western Transcaucasia and Cappadocia: certain iconographic parallels from the time of the Macedonian dynasty
Yundoltseva E.Yu.

Key words: relief images, frescoes, Cappadocia, Abkhazia, Transcaucasia, Felidae beast, bull, lion, construction.
The article compares, for the first time, a group of relief images from Abkhazia and frescoes from some of the cave churches in Cappadocia. Analysis of the iconographic and stylistic peculiarities of the two groups revealed common traits. Studies of their archaeological and historical context allow stating that both groups date to one and the same period between the third quarter of the 10th c. and the year 1071, when the Macedonian dynasty ruled in Byzantium. The article raises the topic of artistic contacts (possibly migration of builders’ teams) between the two regions and outlines the areas for further study, for instance, the façades of churches in the historical provinces of Tao and Klarjeti. The constructional features of some of the Cappadocian churches show similarities to certain monuments in northern Mesopotamia, which fact also calls for a more detailed study.

Manufacturing technology of the ornaments from Mamisondon cemetery (North Ossetia)
Stolyarova D.A.

Key words: ornaments, nonferrous and precious metal, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, visual analysis, moulding, plastic deformation, solder, wire, tool.
The article tells of the manufacturing technology, including the chemical composition of the metal, of the ornaments from Mamisondon cemetery (8th c.) in the Zaramag basin. Ninety-five ornaments made of nonferrous and precious metals have been inspected and studied under optical microscope with l0x to 500x magnification. The chemical composition of the metal of 74 ornaments, represented by 88 samples, has been studied with nondestructive energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of the study reveal the technological schemes of manufacturing the ornaments, the high level of the technological skills that were applied, and the diversity of the instruments and alloys that were used by the jewelers.

New anthropological materials of Saltovo-Mayatsk culture from Upper Saltov-IV cemetery
Reshetova I.K.

Key words: Saltovo-Mayatsk culture, Verkhniy Saltov, paleoanthropology, physiological stress markers, injury, trephinations, isotopic analysis.
Archaeological study of Saltovo-Mayatsk sites near the village of Verkhniy Saltov (Volchansk region, Kharkov Oblast) began in 1900 and continues to the present day. Recent research of the anthropological materials allowed characterizing the biological status of the forest-steppe zone population of Saltovo-Mayatsk culture. The collection of 30 individuals (13 males, 9 females, 3 children, 3 newborns) was studied by craniometrical and osteometrical methods. Physiological stress markers and pathological cases have also been described. Isotopic analysis of the collagen has been done to reconstruct the paleodiet patterns. The investigated skulls are characterized by dolicho-mesocranium proportion, with medium and large- size longitudinal diameters, small and medium transverse diameters, significant horizontal and vertical profile and high nasal bones projecting (table. 1). There are cases of physiological stress marked in the group. Among the signs of episodic stress are enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia (table 2). Epigenetic traits include osteoms, wormian and suture bones, grooves on the surface of the frontal bones. There are a number of dental pathologies, dental caries, odontogenic osteomyelitis, dedentition, anomalies of development (table 2). The selection is characterized by a high level of injury. There is a large number of fractures (nose, depressed fractures of the bones of the skull). When working with the remains of the individuals, two cases of trephination have been revealed (cat. no.51, № 79).
A pilot study of isotopic composition of collagen bone tissue of individuals from the catacomb burials in the necropolis of Upper Saltov-IV allowed identifying the type of diet in the group. The most significant feature of the average diet is probably the significant share of C4 plants. Thus, the study of the anthropological materials from Upper Saltov-IV cemetery yielded new data, allowed recording the number of defects and anomalies, gave evidence of stress factors in the group, and provided the materials for bioarchaeological reconstruction.

The impact of cattle-grazing on the vegetation dynamics of Negev desert (Israel) in the Holocene according to palynological and archaeological data
Babenko A.N.

Key words: Holocene, Negev desert, zoogenic deposits, impact of cattle-grazing.
The topic of changes in vegetation and of anthropogenic impact on the ancient ecosystems in the Near East still calls for further study. The zoogenic deposits that have been discovered in Central Negev comprise unique material for reconstructing the desert vegetation in the Holocene. Analysis of the written data and study of the deposits at Atzmaut, Ramon I and Nakarot allowed reconstructing the dynamics of the desert vegetation and identifying the impact of cattle grazing. The increased share of Plantago and Thymelaea spp. in the pollen specters of zoogenic deposits practically concurs with the three periods in which the number of archaeological sites increases: Early Bronze Age I and II (3500–2700 BC), Middle Bronze Age (2300–2000 BC) and Iron Age (1200–586 BC), and with the arrival of Bedouin tribes into the desert in the 17th–18th cc. AD.

Pedological and geochemical studies of the occupation deposits in Veliky Novgorod (Ilmensky excavation site)
Dolgikh A.V.

Key words: occupation deposits, interdisciplinary study, Middle Ages, Veliky Novgorod, Ilmensky excavation site, layer of hiatus, native soil, ploughing horizon.
The article presents an interdisciplinary study (soil studies, paleogeography, geochemistry, etc.) of occupation layers and soils at Ilmensky excavation site in Veliky Novgorod. The evolution of the landscapes, soils and anthropogenic deposits has been studied. The buried native soil under the occupation layer (up to 2.5 m) is forest vegetable earth and podzol, with a ploughing horizon. The occupation layer is represented by two types: organic anaerobic and organomineral aerobic. Immature “ploughing-and-garden” soil (middle of the 12th c. – beginning of the 14th c., layer of hiatus) has been studied, in the organic stratum.

Hunting of ringed seal (Pusa hispida by ancient Eskimos of the Chukotka in the late Holocene
Gorlova E.N.

Key words: aboriginal hunting, age structure, hunting period, stable isotopes, bones of ringed seals.
The article discusses the results of investigating the bones of ringed seals from the kitchen waste at an ancient Eskimo settlement (2370–810 years ago) on the Chukotka with the help of the archaeozoological method and analysis of stable isotopes. The age structure shows that immature animals up to one year of age were the main target of hunting (table 2). Hunting for ringed seals was year-round, however, the time from midsummer to midwinter was the most intensive hunting period. Almost all the animals were procured in the littoral zone (Fig. 2); isotope data allowed reconstructing the average size of the settlement’s hunting area. Isotope studies showed that for fifteen centuries there had been no significant changes in the ecology of ringed seals. The habitat and feeding habits remained stable and did not depend on the age. Parallel reconstructions of the hunting strategy and of the secular dynamics of the spatial and ecological structure of the local ringed seal population showed that the aboriginal hunting strategy did not undermine the quantity of the hunted species.

 
 

 

     
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II Международный научный семинар 
«Полевые исследования памятников I тыс. н. э. в лесной и лесостепной зонах Восточной Европы» 23 марта 2017 г., Институт археологии РАН

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

Международная научная конференция "Археологические исследования в России: новые материалы и интерпретации" 1-2 марта 2017 г., ИА РАН, ул. Дм. Ульянова, д. 19, 4 этаж, конференц-зал

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

15-е заседание научного семинара «Археология Подмосковья». Институт археологии РАН, 20-22 февраля 2017

 
   
 
 
     

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