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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2011 г. / № 3 (English)

Number 3, 2011

A functional and planigraphic analysis of microdebitage (based on the materials from Kamennaya Balka II Upper Paleolithic site)
Hamakawa M., Aleksandrova O.I.

New data on the stratigraphy of the Ushki sites in the valley of the river Kamchatka
Krenke N.A., Leonova E.V., Melekestsev I.V., Pevzner M.M.

Abouf ethnic and cultural processes in the mid-Volga and Kama regions in the Mesolithic and the Neolithic
Viskalin A.V.

On the criteria for identifying classical sanctuaries
Kuzmina Yu.N.

Arrowheads from the early nomads of the Ilek Left Bank, 6th – 1st cc. BC (based on the materials from the burial grounds near Prokhorovka)
Kurinskikh O.I.

Specific features of Mayan men’s and women’s costume from the Classic period (based on the study of terracotta figurines)
Demicheva I.Yu.

Archaeology of the Byzantine Period: recent studies

Byzantine Jericho Project – 2010: recent excavations and new perspectives
Beliaev L.A.

The glass-making industry in Roman times and in the Early Middle Ages: sources, facts and hypotheses
Rumiantseva O.S.

Early Byzantine temple in Apameia Kibotos (Dinar): a preliminary report on the 2009–2010 investigations
Sedov V.V.

Who built the fortress of Levoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye?
Afanasyev G.E.

The “new date” for the St. Sophia cathedral in Kiev: a critique of the hypothesis
Arkhipova E.I., Tolochko A.P.

Inscriptions and drawings on the walls of the stair turret in the cathedval of the Nativity of Hu Blessed Virgin in the monastery of St. Anthony in Novgorod
Medyntseva A.A.

New data in 13–17 cc. cathedral of the Dormition in Yaroslavl about
Engovatova A.V., Yaganov A.V.

Publications

Stone shuttles (the Neolithic of the Don forest-steppe)
Smolyaninov R.V., Surkov A.V.

Housebuilding in the ancient town of Sneporod
Morgunov Yu.Yu.

Critics and bibliography

Pryakhin A.D. The Don-Donets steppe and forest-steppe in the Bronze Age. A history of study. In two volumes. Voronezh, 2008, 2010
Gorbunov V.S.

A new book on Scythology (Romashko V.A., Skory S.A. Bliznets-2: an aristocratic Scythian kurgan on the Dnieper right-bank Nadporozh’ye. Dnepropetrovsk, 2009)
Medvedev A.P.

Robert G. Ousterhout. A Byzantine settlement in Cappadocia (Dumbarton Oaks Studies, XLII). Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Washington, D.C., 2005
Beliaev L.A., Grigorian S.B.

A.B. Mazurov, A.Yu. Nikandrov. The Russian udel during the period of the unified state. The Serpukhov principality in the middle of the 14th – first half of the 15th c. Moscow, 2008
Yushko A.A.

Tingley N. Arts of ancient Viet Nam: from river plain to open sea. With essays by Andreas Reinecke, Pierre – yves Manguin, Kerry Nguyen-Long, Nguyen Dinh Chien. Houston, 2009
Zakharov А.О.

Chronicle

International relations in the Black Sea littoral in Scytho-Classical and Khazar times. Rostov-on-Don, 2009
Gavrilyuk N.A.

International scientific conference The Medieval Town of Southeastern Rus: Emergence, Development and Material Culture (Kursk, 2009)
Shpilev A.G.

To the jubilee of Boris Andreevich Shramko
Skory S.A., Alekseev A.Yu., Yablonsky L.T.

The path to the vocation (to the jubilee of Musa Bagaev)
Kozenkova V.I.

To commemorate the 70th anniversary of Yu.N. Voronov (1941–1993)
Bgazhba O.Kh.

Summaries

A functional and planigraphic analysis of microdebitage (based on the materials from Kamennaya Balka II Upper Paleolithic site)
Hamakawa M., Aleksandrova O.I.

Key words: traceology, planigraphy, experiment, microtrace, microdebitage, scraper, microspall,  linear traces, microrelief.
The article presents a functional and planigraphic analysis of the microdebitage from the northeastern part of Kamennaya Balka II Upper Paleolithic site. Traceological study of the scrapers found at the location allowed identifying a block of microtraces which is identical to the one observed on the microdebitage. The specific features of the cutting edge of the scrapers and of the microspalls allowed identifying a group of objects which showed traces of work with hides. The spatial distribution of the scrapers and the microdebitage follows common regularities. Planigraphic analysis of the microdebitage revealed a circular structure, part of which is a concentration of microspalls showing traces of work with hides. That concentration is where most of the scrapers have been found. The identical signs of wear on the microdebitage objects and the scrapers, as well as the fact that they tend to be located near a patch of red ochre, allow assuming that hides were worked at that part of the site. The herein presented method of analyzing flint material allows identifying the locations of specific activities and undetected objects in the occupation layer.

New data on the stratigraphy of the Ushki sites in the valley of the river Kamchatka
Krenke N.A., Leonova E.V., Melekestsev I.V., Pevzner M.M.

Key words: Kamchatka, Stone Age, geomorphology, stratigraphy, tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, palaeogeography, Late Pleistocene, Holocene.
In 2007 an integrated archaeological and geological study of the Ushki occupation sites was carried out. The sites are located on the rim of a fluvioglacial erosional plain. We have identified layers of ash in the Holocene part of the cross-section and found the Holocene/Pleistocene boundary. The borders of the occupation sites are provisional, and artifacts which correlate with the oldest Upper Paleolithic layer can be encountered both on the shore between the “occupation sites” and in the lake area. Radiocarbon dating for the lens of charcoal from the cross-section between Ushki 1 and 4, where the deepest-lying artifacts have been found, showed 11800+35. The article gives an outline of the work required for answering some of the debatable questions
and identifies the areas within the Kamchatka river valley that could yield other Paleolithic sites.

About ethnic and cultural processes in the mid-Volga and Kama regions in the Mesolithic and the Neolithic
Viskalin A.V.

Key words: Mezolithic, Neolithic, mid-Volga, Kama region, pieces with oblique retouched truncation, cultural processes.
The article studies the spatial and temporal distribution of pieces with oblique retouched truncation in the mid-Volga and Kama regions. The pieces with oblique retouched truncation and associated items of “steppe” appearance were brought to the territory at the end of the Boreal period by population groups of the Zhekalgan and Eastaiskaya cultures from the North Caspian region, who had moved to the forest-steppes due to the ecological crisis. At the beginning of the Atlantic period, under the influence of Early Neolithic tribes, the forest-steppe population with pieces with oblique retouched truncation and trapezes moved deeper into the forest zone, where they mixed with the local tribes of the Kama and Russko-Lugovskaya cultures. The fact that in the Early Neolithic the complex of “steppe features” disappeared from the everyday life of tribes with stroke-ornamented ceramics in the mid-Volga and Urals regions could signify another migration. At the end of the Neolithic another population group with pieces with oblique retouched truncation but without trapezes arrived to the Lower Kama, presumably from the Trans-Urals. They left stroke-ornamented ceramics of the Tatarskiy Azibey type.

On the criteria for identifying classical sanctuaries
Kuzmina Yu.N.

Key words: classical archaeology, Helladic, ancient Greek cults, Hellenic sanctuaries, Bosporan kingdom.
The article considers one of the most complex issues connected with the study of classical sanctuaries, namely, the criteria for their identification. The main purpose of the present study is to specify the criteria for identifying sacred sites, primarily Hellenic sanctuaries of the Bosporan kingdom. The author distinguishes between so-called primary criteria, which include information from the literary tradition and lapidary sources in situ, the role of a locality which has a sacred site, etc. Secondary criteria can be the analysis of votive offerings and temple inventory, as well as of osteologic material, i.e. of the sources which scholars often interpret (without taking into consideration the more important primary criteria) as axiomatic evidence that the site was a sanctuary.

Arrowheads from the early nomads of the Ilek Left Bank, 6th – 1st cc. BC (based on the materials from the burial grounds near Prokhorovka)
Kurinskikh O.I.

Key words: early nomads, burial complexes, arrowheads, quiver sets, relative chronology.
The article tells of the arrowheads from burial complexes at the Pokrovka burial grounds (6th – 1st cc. BC) which are situated in the Ilek left bank region of the South Urals. The author suggests a typology for the items based on the traditional principles of classification. For all the types, their combinations in the assemblages have been studied. Five groups of quiver sets have been identified, and their relative chronological order. Thus, we can date the assemblages which contain the arrowheads.

Specific features of Mayan men’s and women’s costume from the Classic period (based on the study of terracotta figurines)
Demicheva I.Yu.

Key words: Mayan, terracotta figurines, costume elements, social status.
The article analyses the main features of Mayan costumes as seen on terracotta figurines from the Classic period. The gender and social aspects of the costumes are considered. The author identifies the common and distinctive features of men’s and women’s costume and the features that are related to specific occupations. The article offers a typology of elements of the Mayan costume.

Archaeology of the Byzantine Period: recent studies
Byzantine Jericho Project – 2010: recent excavations and new perspectives
Beliaev L.A.

Key words: Byzantine, Palestine, Jericho, Russian plots, archaeology, numismatics, mosaics, museum construction.
The article presents the results of the excavations carried out by Joint Expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the participation of the Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (PNA) at the land plot of Russian Federation at Tell Hassan (central part of Jericho). The excavation in Jericho is the first fieldwork of the Russian archaeologists in Palestine for the past century. And this is an evident historical injestice, because it was the Russian science that broke the way here in the 1880-s. During three months of work, the Expedition cleared out the history of the land lot and amassed a collection of ancient items of museum importance (over 300). The exploitation of the land lot goes back to Roman times (the most ancient coins found are dated 1st c. BC). In the Byzantine epoch (late 5th–early 7th c. AD) the whole land lot was occupied by the buildings. They are built of big blocks of cut stone on bouldery foundations; capitals and bases are extremely schematic; the columns are hewn from local limestone. However, the interiors are comfortable and richly decorated. All of them are equipped by reservoirs where water canals go to, floors are carpeted by mosaic of small white or colored stone cubes. The most important find is a big (3.6 ×3.6 m) polychrome mosaic of 150 thousand cubes. Its composition is formed by complex braided circles and vegetation motives that are associated in the religious symbolic with wishes of well-being. Many finds point to the Christian character of the complex: bronze thurible with chains and cross; ceremonial bronze lamp; ceramic lamps with the Greek inscriptions. These things and mosaic relate to the period from late 5th to the first half lf 7th c. The second polychrome mosaic is found in premises hardly touched by excavations.

The glass-making industry in Roman times and in the Early Middle Ages: sources, facts and hypotheses
Rumiantseva O.S.

Key words: glass-making industry, chemical composition, classical period, early medieval period.
The article reviews the latest international studies on late classical and early medieval glass-making. They show that during the time in question most of the glass found its way to Europe as a semi-finished product to be later worked into artifacts. During the first half – the middle of the 1st millennium AD Europe had three main sources of glass: one possibly in the Syro-Palestinian region, another in Egypt, and the third has not yet been identified. This data amends the systems of interpreting the composition of ancient glass that are often encountered in Russian studies.

Early Byzantine temple in Apameia Kibotos (Dinar): a preliminary report on the 2009–2010 investigations
Sedov V.V.

Key words: Byzantine, Asia Minor, architecture, Emperor Justinian, basilica, baptismal font, epigraphic.
The article presents the results of small-scale investigations at the ruins of the well-known Early Byzantine church in the ancient Phrygian (Asia Minor) town of Apameia Kibotos (near the modern town of Dinar, Turkey). New architectural measurements have been carried out, which allowed determining that the church is a square basilica and dates to the time of the Emperor Justinian (6th c.). We have found the baptistery, and inside it a previously unrecorded baptismal font of solid marble. The article publishes a reconstruction of the layout.

Who built the fortress of Levoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye?
Afanasyev G.E.

Key words: Khazars, khaganate, Arabs, Sarkel, Petrona, Byzantine fort, Roman fort, Umayyad qasr, Apsaros, Timgad.
The article considers the origins of the architecture at Levoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye, which some scholars believe to be the site of Sarkel. M.I. Artamonov, P.A. Rappoport and S.A. Pletneva have put forth several arguments in favor of the assumption that it were local “Eurasian” and not Byzantine architects who had built Sarkel for the Khazars. The arguments include the following: the walls of the fortress were built without any foundations in the native soil, the bricks are not of Byzantine format, the fortress in not Byzantine in layout. The author believes that the above arguments are unfounded. Calculations show that the ground could hold the weight of the fortress even without underground foundations. The format of the bricks from Leveberezhnoye has many parallels at Byzantine sites. The author is of the opinion that Roman-Byzantine fortification architecture from the 1st – 2nd cc. to the 9th c. offers analogies of the layout at Levoberezhnoye. Hence it is possible to give credence to the Byzantine sources which mention a fortress that Byzantine architects built for the Khazars by order of the Emperor Theophilus.

The “new date” for the St. Sophia cathedral in Kiev: a critique of the hypothesis
Arkhipova E.I., Tolochko A.P.

Key words: early Rus state, St. Sophia cathedral, Kiev, Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great, date of foundation, prince’s portrait.
The article covers the key assumptions of N.N. Nikitenko’s hypothesis that St. Sophia cathedral in Kiev was founded on November 4, 1011. The hypothesis was not accepted by the scientific community and had no influence on the reconstruction of cultural and historical processes of the first half of the 11th c. However, now that the millenary celebrations are scheduled to take place in 2011 and N.N. Nikitenko’s concept becomes more widely known to the general public, there is need for a critical overview of the conclusions reached by the scholar and of her method in general.

Inscriptions and drawings on the walls of the stair turret in the cathedval of the Nativity of Hu Blessed Virgin in the monastery of St. Anthony in Novgorod
Medyntseva A.A.

Key words: cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin in the monastery of St. Anthony, beginning of the 12th c., drawings, painters, autograph.
The article publishes part of the drawings and inscriptions on the walls of the stair turret in the cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin in the monastery of St. Anthony in Novgorod. The drawings and inscriptions were left by the painters who worked in the cathedral in the 12th c. Similar drawings and inscriptions are found in other churches in Novgorod: St. Sophia cathedral, the cathedral in St. George monastery (11th–12th cc.) and the more recent cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin in Gorodnya (15th c.). Integrated study of the drawings and inscriptions shows that they are not an exception, and their careful restoration helps increase our sources on the everyday culture and the artistic process in the Middle Ages.

New data in 13–17 cc. cathedral of the Dormition in Yaroslavl about
Engovatova A.V., Yaganov A.V.

Key words: Yaroslavl, Rubleny Gorod, architecture of 13th-16th cc., historical topography, building materials.
In 2004–2006 and 2008 the Yaroslavl archaeological expedition of the RAS Institute of Archaeology conducted architectural and archaeological investigations on the territory of the Rubleny Gorod in Yaroslavl, where four consecutive stone buildings of the cathedral of the Dormition had existed from the 13th to the 17th c. None of the buildings are extant, hence the main goal of the excavations was to localize them. As a result, the remains of two of the buildings (early 16th and second half of the 17th cc.) have been found and investigated. We also identified the location of the oldest church in Yaroslavl: the church of the Dormition which dates back to the early 13th c. The investigations of 2004–2008 allowed studying the extant constructions in the ancient buildings, the building materials and the elements of décor from the parts which have not survived. A series of historical and topographic conclusions have been reached. Even though the herein presented new data is far from being final, it changes our notions about the reasons for the relocation of the buildings, and gives certain material for the study of Old Russian architecture.

Stone shuttles (the Neolithic of the Don forest-steppe)
Smolyaninov R.V., Surkov A.V.

Key words: forest-steppe Don region, Neolithic, stone tools, shuttles.
The article publishes the 19 currently known shuttles from the Don region. Typologically the items are distinguished according to their shape, the working of the back, and the notches. The authors are of the opinion that the items were used for strictly utilitarian purposes.

Housebuilding in the ancient town of Sneporod
Morgunov Yu.Yu.

Key words: forthill, Sneporod, above-ground dwellings, dwelling pits, stoves, two-storey buildings, open hearths, pit-house, keller, timber structures, dropped ceilings.
In 1982–1989 we investigated the remains of 20 above-ground dwellings from the end of the 10th – middle of the 13th cc. on the site of the ancient town of Sneporod on the river Sula. Three of the buildings had open hearths which are characteristic of nomad dwellings. Four one-storey and 13 two-storey buildings belonged to the Russian population. Depending on the location of the stoves, the two-storey buildings can be divided into three types. These are: houses with warm upper rooms over cold first floor (these appeared at Late Romny sites on the Dnieper Left Bank and continued to exist until the 17th – 18th cc.), houses with cold upper rooms over warm first floor, and houses with stoves on both floors. On the whole, building at the site was sparse. A street has been found which leads from the unfortified part of the town to the fortress. In the event of siege its circular fortifications and the timber structures inside the walls could shelter the local population, frontier fortresses typically being places of refuge.


 

 
 

 

     
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XIV Ежегодная Московская конференция "Восточные древности в истории России. Эпоха средневековья и ее археологическое окружение". Конференция состоится со среды по пятницу 12-14 апреля 2017 г. Начало заседаний в 10 часов 30 минут: Москва, ул. Кржижановского, 14, корп. 2, 5 этаж, зал заседаний. Метро “Профсоюзная”

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

Научный семинар "Московская Русь: первые шаги. Новые открытия в области археологии, истории и топографии XII – середины XV вв.". Москва, ул. Дм. Ульянова, 19. 10-11 апреля 2017

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

Международная конференция "Искусство каменного века: образы, знаки, контекст". Санкт-Петербург, МАЭ РАН, 9-12 апреля 2017

 
   
 
 
     

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