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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2011 г. / № 2 (English)

Number 2, 2011

Mesolithic fishers in the European North of Russia
Burov G.M.

The use of rope in the decoration of Neolithic pottery in the north of Western Siberia
Dubovtseva E.N.

The settlements Tell Hazna I and Kashkashok III in Northeastern Syria: a comparative analysis
Munchaev R.M., Amirov Sh.N., Suleiman A.

The Urals-Mugodzhary mining and metallurgical center (Late Bronze Age)
Tkachev V.V.

Gafuri pottery assemblage from the Biktimirovo site in the forest-steppe of the South Urals
Savelyev N.S.

The symbolism of Early Sarmatian diagonal burials
Kokurkina O.V.

A new distribution area of adornments from the circle of chamfer enamels
Zin’kovskaya I.V.

Ceramic inscriptions in the décor of Moscow’s 17th – c. churches
Baranova S.I.

Publications

Paleolithic workshop in the north of the Kalach Uplands
Feduynin I.V.

The Mesolithic stratum at Ust’-Sheksna settlement in the Yaroslavl oblast
Averin V.A., Rykunov A.N., Rykunova I.I.

Metal artifacts from the Early Andronovo cemetery of Aschisu (Central Kazakhstan)
Kukushkin I.A.

A new building complex from Panticapaeum
Tolstikov V.P., Kuzmina Yu.N.

Grave of a kontophoros warrior from the Rustov cemetery (Northeastern Azerbaijan)
Khalilov M.Dzh., Akhmedov S.A.

The 1892 hoard from the environs of Crantz/Zelenogradsk (Kaliningrad oblast)
Kulakov V.I.

Kurgan cemetery near the village of Konchanskoye-Suvorovskoye in the Novgorod oblast
Zimina M.P.

Ceramic “rhyton” from Samosdelka site
Zilivinskaya E.D.

Notes

Two unique 12th – 14th cc. clubs from Mordovia
Begovatkin A.A.

New Polovtsian sculptured image from the Atkarsk region of Saratov oblast
Kargin Yu.Yu.

Anthropomorphic bronze figurines from the Selitrennoye site
Pigaryov E.M.

History of Science

Habosh Kanukov: different sides of the same coin
Olisaev V.G., Tsutsiev A.A.

Critics and Bibliography

Tsetlin Yu.B. The Neolithic of the center of the Russian Plain. Pottery ornamentation and methods of cultural periodization. M., 2008
Sidorov V.V.

Chicha – a fortified settlement from the period of transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age in the Barabino forest-steppe. In three volumes. Novosibirsk; Berlin, 2001; 2004; 2009
Matveyeva N.P.

Ajbabin A.I., Khairedinova E.A. The cemetery near the village of Luchistoye. V. 1. The 1977 and 1982–84 excavations. Bosporan studies. Supplementum 4. Simferopol; Kerch, 2008.
Gavritukhin I.O.

An integrated study of the ancient and medieval population of Northeastern Rus. Archaeology of the North Russian village of the 10th – 13th cc: medieval settlements and cemeteries near Lake Kubenskoye. In three volumes/ Ed. by N.A. Makarov. M., 2007 – 2009.
Lapshin V.A., Platonova N.I., Sankina S.L.

Chronicle

Scientific conference “Archaeology in the 21st century: the synthesis of classical modern research methods as an area of priority for archaeological studies of the Kaluga oblast (Kaluga, 2009)
Proshkin O.L.

In memory of Boris Anatolyevich Litvinsky
Solovyov V.S.

In memory of A.A. Bobrinsky
Collective of authors


Summaries

Mesolithic fishers in the European North of Russia
Burov G.M.

Key words: Mesolithic sites, Vis I, Veret’ye I, radiocarbon analysis, fishing, fishing implements, woodwork, European North, lakes, Esox.
The article gives the age of Mesolithic sites in the north of European Russia (Fig. 1) that yielded finds of organic materials: Antrea, Nizhneye Veret’ye, Vis I, Veret’ye I and Lukinchikha, and the cemetery of Oleniyi Ostrov. The article describes fishing implements: wooden hoops of scoop-nets and network fish-traps (Figs. 3, 7; 4; 5 2 – 4), fish-trap of laths (Fig. 5, 1), bone harpoons (Figs. 7, 8 – 12; 8, 4) bone (Figs. 3, 1 – 4; 7, 1 – 7, 13 – 15; 8, 7, 8), and wooden (Fig. 8, 6) barbed arrow- and spearheads, leisters of wood and bone (Fig. 3, 5; 5, 5; 8, 1), bone fishing hooks (Figs. 3, 6; 8, 2,3,10, 11, 13, 15, 16), fishing nets (Fig. 6, 3, 4, 5), including floats made of bark (Figs. 2, 1 - 4; 6, 1) and stone and birchbark sinkers (Fig. 8, 5, 14), wooden discs of splashing sticks (Figs. 2, 6; 6, 6; 8, 9, 12, 17, 18) and oars (Fig. 2, 5, 7). The staple fish was pike. The level to which fishing skills had developed was not surpassed in Neolithic times. Such fishing skills are only found in microregions around large lakes and small rivers where there is mass migration of fish. The inhabitants led a sedentary life, however, fishers could also hunt or barter with hunters. Fishing was the specialty at Lukinchikha.

The use of rope in the decoration of Neolithic pottery in the north of Western Siberia
Dubovtseva E.N.

Key words: Neolithic age of Western Siberia, pottery, stamped rope, experimental modeling.
The article presents the results of studying Neolithic pottery from the north of Western Siberia. Traceological analysis and experimental modeling of pottery ornamentation allowed identifying the vessels that had been decorated with stamped rope. The article considers the variants of the rope stamps and the means of ornamentation that were used for decorating Neolithic pottery. The tradition of rope ornamentation is older than previously assumed. The Neolithic age of the pottery in question has been proven by radiocarbon dating.

The settlements Tell Hazna I and Kashkashok III in Northeastern Syria: a comparative analysis
Munchaev R.M., Amirov Sh.N., Suleiman A.

Key words: Tell Hazna I, Kashkashok III, Habur steppe, Ubaid period, Uruk period, Nineveh V period, engraved pottery, cylinder seals, counting tablets.
The article gives a comparative analysis of two contemporaneous settlements from the 4th – first half of the 3d millennia BC in the Habur steppe of Northern Mesopotamia (Northeast Syria). The settlements of Tell Hazna I and Kashkashok III are 30 km apart and their physical and geographical conditions are identical. Both settlements functioned during one and the same period of time. Their status in the settlement hierarchy was that of temple centers, hence the similarities in the planigraphy and architecture. The direct counterparts among the objects of material culture that are found at the two settlements indicate that the similarities were also brought about by the paradigms of cultural evolution as well as by ecological factors.

The Urals-Mugodzhary mining and metallurgical center (Late Bronze Age)
Tkachev V.V.

Key words: Late Bronze Age, archaeometallurgy, geoarchaeology, Urals-Mugodzhary mining and metallurgical center, archaeological micro-regions, Kozhumberdy cultural group.
The numerous deposits and occurrences of copper in the Urals mountain country (South Urals) and the Mugodzhary mountains gave rise to the development of a mining and metallurgical center in the Late Bronze Age. Sites of the Kozhumberdy type evolved around the Late Bronze Age copper workings. They played an important role on the western flank of the Andronovo cultural and historical community. The article analyses the functional mechanisms of the economic and cultural system, which was segmental in organization. Its archaeological reflection can be found in the compact micro-regions where several categories of contemporaneous archaeological sites are located. They are connected with geoarchaeological sites in the areas where the copper deposits are found. Integrated study of the sites will allow reconstructing the economic and cultural model of the Urals-Mugodzhary mining and metallurgical center and determining its place within the system of the Eurasian metallurgical province.

Gafuri pottery assemblage from the Biktimirovo site in the forest-steppe of the South Urals
Savelyev N.S.

Key words: South Urals, forest-steppe, 4th c. BC, early nomads, Anan’yino culture, Kara-Abyz culture, Gafuri cultural type, assimilation.
The article analyses pottery of the so-called Gafuri assemblage. Its presence in the forest-steppe of the South Urals is connected with the nomad bearers of the early Prokhorovka culture, who appeared among the sedentary population of the southwestern periphery of the Anan’yino community in the 4th c. BC. Studies of the Gafuri pottery from the Biktimirovo fortified settlement show that the bearers of that pottery appeared on the northern periphery of the Kara-Abyz culture in the middle of the 3d c. BC. The shape and ornamentation of the vessels from Biktimirovo allows connecting their origin with the sites in the southern part of the area of Kara-Abyz culture (Shipovskoye and Okhlebininskoye fortified settlements), where the Gafuri element prevailed until the turn of the eras. The small amounts of Gafuri pottery in the occupation layer at the Biktimirovo fortified settlement could signify marriages between the locals and people from the southern regions of the Kara-Abyz territory, and possible assimilation of the potters in the local milieu. The stratigraphic position of the Gafuri pottery assemblage in the stratum at Biktimirovo site allows using it as a secure chronological reference point in the study of Anan’yino antiquities and of the entire South Urals region in the Early Iron Age.

The symbolism of Early Sarmatian diagonal burials
Kokurkina O.V.

Key words: diagonal burials, ideological notions, religious beliefs, semantics, symbols, ideology, rite, ceremony.
Diagonal burials reflect certain ideological notions and religious beliefs. “Deciphering” the semantics of early diagonal burials and clarification of the meaning of their symbolic elements shall give us a clearer understanding of the ancient people who practiced them. Rituals were polysemantic symbols and expressed certain ideas and outlook, and also were elements of the social hierarchy. A square burial chamber and diagonal position of the corpse are the main elements and symbols in diagonal burials. Analysis of the main symbolic elements in diagonal burials allows concluding that the burials reflected certain cosmogonical notions.

A new distribution area of adornments from the circle of chamfer enamels
Zin’kovskaya I.V.

Key words: barbarian chamfer enamels, Balts, Goths, Veneti,  Late Zarubintsy sites, Upper Don region.
The article publishes new finds from the Upper Don region. The artifacts (bronze armlets, a chain link and fibulae) belong to the circle of chamfer enamels. No Late Zarubintsy sites have yet been discovered in the region, hence we can assume that the finds of East European items of the enamels circle are connected with the migration of some part of the Late Zarubintsy population from the Middle Dnieper region to the river Oskol and further east to the river Khoper in the second half of the 2nd c. We should also note that no artifacts of the enamels circle have been encountered at sites from the second half of the 3d c. of the Kashirka-Sedelki type on the Upper Don. Most probably, the finds of artifacts of the circle of chamfer enamels in the forest-steppe Don region indicate that sites of the Late Zarubintsy type can be discovered there. For that we need further investigations and search for settlements in the Upper Don region that would have strata with typical Late Zarubintsy materials.

Ceramic inscriptions in the décor of Moscow’s 17th – c. churches
Baranova S.I.

Key words: church, pottery inscription, tiled frieze, sloboda, list, Cyrillic calligraphy.
The article presents a new stage in the verification of historical data on pottery inscriptions. The sources studied include the remains of tiled friezes from museum collections and archive documents and photos. The study is carried out within the framework of compiling the corpus of Old Russian pottery inscriptions.

Paleolithic workshop in the north of the Kalach Uplands
Feduynin I.V.

Key words: Paleolithic, Kalach Upland, workshop, quartzite, stone inventory, technique of flaking.
In 2008, investigations in the north of the Kalach Upland (south Middle Don, Voronezh oblast’) revealed the dwelling site and workshop of Belaya Gora. The occupation layer has been lost, and most of the finds are workpieces and production waste. The technique of quartzite flaking is represented by models of flat, crude prismatic and situational flaking, the workpieces include items with bilateral treatment, tall core scrapers and two-sided burins. The finds come from the layer of carbonized loess-like loam. The site must probably dates to the early Upper Paleolithic, and was connected with the primary working of quartzite and the initial stages of tool manufacture.

The Mesolithic stratum at Ust’-Sheksna settlement in the Yaroslavl oblast
Averin V.A., Rykunov A.N., Rykunova I.I.

Key words: Mesolitic, seasonal site, boreal age, Butovo archaeological culture, flint assemblage.
The article analyzes the Mesolitic materials from the multilayer site of Ust’-Sheksna in the Yaroslavl oblast. The assemblage indicates a small dwelling-site (most probably seasonal). The artifacts have analogies among the materials of the Butovo archaeological culture, which appears to have existed in the Volga-Oka interfluve throughout the Mesolithic time. However, due to the lack of clear cultural determinant features we cannot confidently say that the assemblage belongs to the Butovo culture. The typological features of the inventory point to the boreal age of the site. 

Metal artifacts from the Early Andronovo cemetery of Aschisu (Central Kazakhstan)
Kukushkin I.A.

Key words: Bronze Age, Central Kazakhstan, metal items, spectral analysis, cultural genesis of Andronovo tribes.
Aschisu cemetery in Central Kazakhstan dates to the end of the 3d – beginning of the 2nd cc. BC. The necropolis has graves of warriors; the grave goods include a hook, a goad-end, a dagger knife, and a vessel on a circular tray. All the metal items appear to be of local manufacture. The copper vessel is unique and the first find of its kind in steppe Eurasia populated by Andronovo and Srubnaya tribes of the Bronze Age. It is possible that large centers of craftsmanship existed in the southwestern areas of Central Kazakhstan, which were more oriented towards metallurgy and metalworking.

A new building complex from Panticapaeum
Tolstikov V.P., Kuzmina Yu.N.

Key words: classical period, Hellenism, Bosporan Kingdom, classical architecture, Hellenistic pottery, amphora stamps.
In 2009 the Bosporus expedition of the State Museum of Fine Arts discovered that the building complex with the peristyle court in the central area of Panticapaeum (investigated since 2004) had been preceded by an earlier and no less monumental structure. At the present stage, three elements of the complex have been discovered: three interconnecting rooms, a corridor and a cellar. It is important that the older complex is contemporaneous with the residence of the Spartocides, the basileia on the Acropolis of the town. The discovery expands our knowledge about the architectural and planning environment in the central area of Panticapaeum during phase I of building period V which is third quarter of the 4th – first half of the 3d cc. BC according to the periodization by V.P. Tolstikov.

Grave of a kontophoros warrior from the Rustov cemetery (Northeastern Azerbaijan)
Khalilov M.Dzh., Akhmedov S.A.

Key words: Sarmatian period, Azerbaijan, burial, chain armour, weapons, horse harness, ethno-cultural identification, image reconstruction.
In 1974-1976 a late classical cemetery was excavated near the village of Rustov in the Quba region of Azerbaijan. Of the 38 burials that were investigated grave 9 was of especial interest: it contained the skeleton of a man, pottery, a silver cup, jewelry, clothes, weapons and horse harness. The article analyzes the finds and attempts to determine the ethnic and cultural identity of the buried warrior and to reconstruct his appearance. The grave goods reflect the local (northeastern) variant of the common Albanian culture, which comprised elements from both the Albanian and the Sarmatian cultures. However, the warrior who was buried in grave 9 in the 2nd c. AD appears to have been Sarmatian. Since the grave goods were rich and included a spear and armor, we can confidently say that the kontophoros belonged to the nobility.

The 1892 hoard from the environs of Crantz/Zelenogradsk (Kaliningrad oblast)
Kulakov V.I.

Key words: hoard of objects, Northern Sambia, late-Viking times, Curonians and Old Prussians.
A hoard of silver objects has been discovered among the group of finds that until May 1945 were stored in the Museum of Prehistory and Early History (Berlin, Germany) and are now in the State Museum of Fine Arts named after A.S. Pushkin (Moscow, Russia). The inscription reads “Crantz, Kr. Fishhausen” (now Zelenogradsk in the Kaliningrad oblast). The hoard comprises a disc-shaped fibula, two bracelets with cut-through ornament and two cross-shaped fibulae soldered together. Most probably the hoard from Crantz was found in the winter/spring of 1892 when the rampart at Schwedendam and/or the site of Garbik were destroyed. From the wide chronological perspective, the date for the Crantz hoard correlates with the story in the Knytlinga saga about the Danish konung and the Novgorod princess whom he sought in marriage, and the Sambian who was acting as mediator. There are no direct indications that the adornments from the hoard were intended for the Russian princess. So far we can only state that the adornments found at Crantz, which were hidden in the earth in post-Viking times, show traditions from both Western and Eastern Europe.

Kurgan cemetery near the village of Konchanskoye-Suvorovskoye in the Novgorod oblast
Zimina M.P.

Key words: middle Ages, kurgan cemetery, Neolithic and Eneolithic, burials in vessels.
The article presents the results of the author’s excavations at the medieval kurgan cemetery near the village of Konchanskoye-Suvorovskoye and of several burials in vessels in the Borovichy region of Novgorod oblast. The kurgan cemetery is on the territory of the Konchanskoye IV Eneolithic dwelling site, and the stratum overlays the older Stone Age burials.

Ceramic “rhyton” from Samosdelka site
Zilivinskaya E.D.

Key words: Lower Volga, middle Ages, Samosdelka habitation site, cultic ceramic vessel, ceramic rhyton, Khwarezmian import.
The Samosdelka habitation site in the Astrakhan oblast is the only large settlement from the Khazar and Pre-Mongolian time in the Lower Volga discovered so far. It had always been a major center of pottery manufacture. The site yielded an unusual spheroconical vessel with a wide throat, a spout, a handle and appliqué zoomorphic decorations on the body. The vessel is indubitably a ceramic rhyton which has analogies in Central Asia and Iran.

 

 
 

 

     
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XIV Ежегодная Московская конференция "Восточные древности в истории России. Эпоха средневековья и ее археологическое окружение". Конференция состоится со среды по пятницу 12-14 апреля 2017 г. Начало заседаний в 10 часов 30 минут: Москва, ул. Кржижановского, 14, корп. 2, 5 этаж, зал заседаний. Метро “Профсоюзная”

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

Научный семинар "Московская Русь: первые шаги. Новые открытия в области археологии, истории и топографии XII – середины XV вв.". Москва, ул. Дм. Ульянова, 19. 10-11 апреля 2017

 
   
 
 
 

 
 

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