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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2010 г. / № 3 (English)

Contents

No. 3, 2010

The intermediate period of the Upper Paleolithic in the Trans-Baikal regional scheme of periodization (current state of research)
Mescherin M.N.

Ethnic and cultural identification of the Neolithic population in the Circumbaikal region (current state of research)
Buraev A.I.

The relative chronology of pottery ornaments from the Sintashta cemeteries
Khavansky A.I.

The gold spindle
Avilova L.I.

The early stage of ferrous metallurgy in Norway
Espelund A.

Early Iron Age dwellings in the Volga-Kama region
Chernykh Ye.M.

Archeobotanical collections from Chernoe, Otruby and Krasnaya Gorka fortified settlements
of Milograd culture in Belarus
Loshenkov M.I.

Deer-shaped Achaemenid (?) silver knife handle from Filippovka
Treister M.Yu., Shemakhanskaya M.S., Yablonsky L.T.

Concerning a Sarmatian-time group of pottery with ornamented handles
Kapustina E.P.

The cup of Uatsamong and the wheel of Balsag of the Ossetian Nart epos: certain historical and archeological parallels
Romanova G.B.

People and the environment of the Radonezh watersheds in the 13th–16th cc.: methods of correlating palynological data (new investigations of the Morozovskoye bog)
Yershova E.G., Chernov S.Z.

Natural processes in the infilling of foundation pits of medieval buildings
Borisov A.V.

Publications

New investigations of the Khutorskaya dwelling site in the Upper Kama region
Lychagina E.L., Zhukova V.V.

An unusual battle knife from the “Prussia” collection
Prasolov Ya.V.

History of science

Gueorgiy Petrovich Sosnovsky
Kitova L.Yu.

Richard Indreko (1900–1961) – one of the founders of modern Estonian archeology
Kriiska А., Utkin A.V.

Notes

The semantic approach in the study of ancient ceramics technology
Kalinina I.V.

Patrices with the images of tortoise and crane from the Chuya valley
Torgoev A.I.

The Bratsky ostrog, results of the dendrochronological survey
Mylgan V.S., Zharnikov Z.Yu., Mainicheva A.Yu., Lykhin Yu.P.

Critics and bibliography

Origin and Spread of Microblade Technology in Northern Asia and North America / Eds Yaroslaw V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keats, Chen Shen. Barnaby, B.C. 2007
Kuznetsov A.M.

Paths of the Aryans. Polemic notes to the book by E.E. Kuzmina
Klein L.S.

V.S. Gorbunov. The Srubnaya community of Eastern Europe. Ufa, 2006.
Pyatykh G.G.

Chronicle

International symposium “Earliest human migrations in Eurasia” (Makhachkala, 2009)
Davudov O.M., Shunkov M.V.

International congress “Prehistoric Technology 40 Years Later: Functional Studies and the Russian Legacy” (Verona, 2005)
Skakun N.N., Vassiliev S.A., Plisson H.

To the jubilee of O.N. Aksyonova
Editors of the journal and members of the editorial board

To the jubilee of Yu.L. Schapova
Yanin V.L., Saracheva T.G., Stolyarova E.K.

To the 80th anniversary of A.A. Bobrinsky

Tatiana Ivanovna Makarova
Staff of the RAS Institute of Archeology

Rules for authors

List of abbreviations

 

The intermediate period of the Upper Paleolithic in the Trans-Baikal regional scheme of periodization (current state of research)
Mescherin M.N.

Key words: Upper Paleolithic, evolution of the stone inventory, periodization of the chronology of Paleolithic studies in the Trans-Baikal region.
The history of Paleolithic studies in the Trans-Baikal region is covered in the fundamental works by G.P. Sosnovsky, A.P. Okladnikov, S.M. Tseitlin, and Z.A. Abramova. Many of the regional discoveries are connected with the names of A.P. Okladnikov, I.I. Kirillov and M.V. Konstantinov, who researched the fundamental issues of the Upper Paleolithic in the region. The first integrated periodization of the Paleolithic in the region appeared in the late 1960-s, and was based on typological analysis of the stone inventory. The uniform Paleolithic culture was shown to have had three stages of development (Okladnikov, Kirillov). The hypothesis of non-unilinear evolution of the Paleolithic in the region was being actively developed by the 1980-s. A series of archeological cultures were identified within the major sites (Konstantinov). The latest stage of research, starting from the 1990-s, has been characterized by active use of natural science data, new investigations of existing sites and the search for new ones (Konstantinov, Lbova, Tashak, et al.).
The resulting data helped rectify the chronology and contributed to reconstruction of the paleoenvironment. However, at the current stage it is not yet possible to arrive at an unequivocal opinion concerning the periodization of the Upper Paleolithic in the Trans-Baikal region.

Ethnic and cultural identification of the Neolithic population in the Circumbaikal region
(current state of research)
Buraev A.I.

The article considers the interaction of the Neolithic clan-and-tribal formations in the Baikal region and Transbaikalia, and their identification with archaeological cultures. The archaeological and anthropological data covers three regions: Baikal, Western Transbaikalia and Eastern Transbaikalia. The article draws upon studies by several generations of scholars and lists the 14C dates for Neolithic materials. Integrated analysis of the data revealed the diversity of the archaeological cultures and the heterogeneity of the Circumbaikal population in the Neolithic period. The population maintained cultural relations with the western, eastern and southern cultural areas. The migration flows in the region were quite strong. The article identifies the lacunas in the Neolithic studies of the region, draws conclusions and determines the perspectives for further investigations.

The relative chronology of pottery ornaments from the Sintashta cemeteries
Khavansky A.I.

Key words: relative chronology, Sintashta ceramics, Alakul’ ceramics, ornaments, methods of the periodization.
The article considers the new relative chronology of burials at the Sintashta cemeteries which is based on the analysis of ornaments on clay ware. The accounting unit of information is the ware from each individual burial (closed complex). The results conform with the stratigraphic and radiocarbon data and with the analysis of the vessel shapes. The chronological scale allows to detail the history of the Sintashta cultural complex and to provisionally determine the absolute dates for the existence of the site as a whole and its individual stages.

The gold spindle
Avilova L.I.

Key words: Near East, Bronze Age, labor tools, semantic analysis.
The article considers a series of finds from several royal burials of the Bronze Age in Anatolia. The finds comprise spindles with spindle whorls, of bronze and precious metals. The author compares the objects in question and the replicas of carpenters’ tools, also made of precious metals, which are known in elite complexes of the Near East. The precious “implements”, unsuitable for practical usage, find their place among the supreme symbols of royal power (regalia, weapons and vessels). The sacralization of labor through making symbolic (non-functional) tool replicas of precious metals was an important feature of early stratified societies. Such objects had a strong semantic charge, visualizing the hierarchical structure of society. Their presence in burial complexes reflects a major notion of the cult of the dead, that the deceased ancestor (king-priest or queenpriestess) provide for the well-being of the living descendants, the family and, broader, of the community, the state, and the world order in general. The spindle is also included in the list of objects that have symbolic meaning: as a tool it belonged to the sphere of everyday women’s activities, yet it was also part of the sacred aspect of these activities, being connected with procreation and magic healing practices.

The early stage of ferrous metallurgy in Norway
Espelund A.

The rich natural environment in Norway, besides being the source of hydropower, timber and fish, also presents a history of black metalworking that goes back almost 2300 years. Against the general background of European history, the technological units that used natural draft look quite impressive.

Early Iron Age dwellings in the Volga-Kama region
Chernykh Ye.M.

The article considers the dwellings of the 1st millennium BC in the eastern regions of European Russia. The dwellings under investigation belong to the Ananyino cultural and historical area (Early Iron Age). Taking into consideration the incomplete state of preservation of the ancient structures in the cultural layer of settlements located in the taiga and mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest zones, the author gives a detailed analysis of the structural elements identified by archeologists, determines the shape and layout of the dwellings, and identifies the main trends in housebuilding in the ancient near-Urals in the light of environmental, geographical and social factors.

Archeobotanical collections from Chernoe, Otruby and Krasnaya Gorka fortified settlements of Milograd culture in Belarus
Loshenkov M.I.

The article considers the archeobotanical materials from the fortified settlements of the Milograd culture population. The three sites are located in Gomel region along the river Dnieper, and date to the 6th – 3d cc. BC. The paleobotanical collections are represented by imprints of plant seeds on pottery fragments (table 1, 2). Laboratory research showed that the pottery contained the imprints of five cultivated and three weed species of plants. Among the cereals, millet (Panicum miliaceumL.) prevails, after which come wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). There are two species of leguminous plants: pea (Pisum sativum L.) and bean (Viciafaba L.) (table 3). Weeds are represented by seeds of lady’s thumb (Polygonum persicaria L.), green foxtail (Setardia viridis L. Beauv.) and low foxtail (Setaria pumila (Pair.) Roem. Et Schult.). The Milograd potters used’ the plant additions (seeds of millet, wheat, barley, pea, bean and weeds) intentionally. All in all, crockery containing the aforementioned plant additions constitutes 1% at each of the three settlements (table 2, 3).

Deer-shaped Achaemenid (?) silver knife handle from Filippovka
Treister M.Yu., Shemakhanskaya M.S., Yablonsky L.T.

Key words: lost-wax cast silver knife handle, animal style, silver amphora, Achaemenid parallels.
The article publishes the unique deer knife handle from the excavations at kurgan 4 of Filippovka 1 cemetery in the Orenburg oblast. The burials in the kurgan are tentatively dated to the 5th–4th cc. BC. The lost-wax cast silver knife handle is covered with black silver sulphide and inlaid with gold. As to shape, the nearest counterpart is the bone knife handle from the mound of Dedetepe in northwestern Asia Minor, which dates to the second quarter of the 5th c. BC. The handle from Filippovka appears to have been modeled after an item manufactured in the first half of the 5th c. BC in an Asia Minor workshop that produced artifacts in the Achaemenid style. The item could have been manufactured relying on the tastes of the buyer, or the craftsman could have made an imitation of an Achaemenid-style artifact. There is reason to assume that the knife from Filippovka could have been in use, or storage, for a considerable length of time prior to finding its way into the burial.

Concerning a Sarmatian-time group of pottery with ornamented handles
Kapustina E.P.

Key words: pottery group with zoomorphic handles, metal vessels with zoomorphic handles, Sarmatian-time, semantic analysis.
The article considers a Sarmatian-time pottery group with ornamented handles from the Bosporus and adjoining territories. It substantiates the interpretation of the vessels as imitations of imported metal ware with its characteristic structural details. The author undertakes a semantic analysis of the group of handles in the context of the regional traditions of zoomorphic pottery and offers a new integrative interpretation of the vessels as a specific variant of the pottery with zoomorphic handles.

The cup of Uatsamong and the wheel of Balsag of the Ossetian Nart epos: certain historical and archeological parallels
Romanova G.B.

Key words: Nart epos, solar amulet – wheelshaped plate, equine brow piece.
The Zmeisky catacomb cemetery of the 10th–12th cc. is well-known in the early medieval historiography of the Northern Caucasus. It has been identified as Alanian, and its ethnic and cultural background is the milieu in which the heroic Nart epos evolved. Catacomb 14 yielded an especially rich burial of an equestrian warrior; among the finds is a magnificent saber and an equine brow piece of gilded bronze, shaped as a figurine of a woman holding a cup, with the contents shown by a glass inset. Tubular brow pieces are often encountered in the Saltovo-Mayak culture of the 8th–9th cc. in the Don region and in the Alanian culture of the Northern Caucasus up to the 13th c., yet the sculptured brow piece from catacomb 14 is unique and has no analogies. In our opinion, the artifact can be interpreted in the context of the Ossetian Nart epos. The woman holding the cup can thus be one of the epic heroines, Satana or Dzerassa, and the cup she is holding is the magical cup of Uatsamong, filled with rong, the drink of heroes. At the Nart feasts, the cup showed whether the participants spoke the truth about their feats, or were merely boasting. The second theme of the article is whether the archeological artifacts could represent the epic magical wheel of Balsag, which descends from the sky and cuts through the legs of the sleeping Soslan. The archeological artifacts from Koban and Kamunta (wheelshaped plates) were published by P.S. Uvarova and have been known for over 100 years, yet no historical interpretation has been suggested for them. The purpose of the article is to draw stronger attention on the part of archeologists to the Ossetian (and the other national variants) of the Nart epos, which is a valuable source of scientific information.

People and the environment of the Radonezh watersheds in the 13th–16th cc.: methods of correlating palynological data (new investigations of the Morozovskoye bog)
Yershova E.G., Chernov S.Z.

Key words: Great Principality of Moscow, Radonezh, palynological analysis, sporo-pollen spectra, medieval economy, reconstructions of the natural environment and human impact, 13th–16th cc.
The article is part of the Radonezh paleolandscape project of the RAS Institute of Archeology, the RF Ministry of Culture Institute of Heritage and the Biology Faculty of the MSU; it compares the palynological data from a series of cross-sections in different parts of the Morozovskoye bog (Sergievoposadsky region of the Moscow oblast) and the cross-sections in the residual plowing horizons of the village of Ivonino (16th c.). The article suggests methods of identifying the zonal and local components in sporo-pollen spectra, and of comparative assessment of the impact of medieval economy on the natural vegetation through recording the pollen from indicator groups. The article reconstructs the natural environment and human impact on one of elevations of the Klin-Dmitrov morainic ridge during the period of internal colonization of the Great Principality of Moscow in the 13th–16th cc.

Natural processes in the infilling of foundation pits of medieval buildings
Borisov A.V.

The article analyses the possible variants of natural infilling for the foundation pits of medieval buildings, gives a general characteristic of the infill soils, and a concise description of the basic natural displacement processes pertaining to the archeological perspective. The article gives the morphological characteristics for individual layers and the infill in general (color, composition, shape of layer, inclusions, etc.), which can indicate the natural origin of the infill layers in the foundation pit. The main focus of attention is on the morphological properties of the soil, which archaeologists can use in their work and which do not call for any specialized training in the natural sciences. The author shows than intensive infilling begins after the building ceased to function, and can follow several scenarios depending on the presence of covering, reinforced walls and land water. At the initial stage of infilling, the main processes in automorphic conditions are collapse, caving and deformation; in hydromorphic conditions the main processes are suffusion.

New investigations of the Khutorskaya dwelling site in the Upper Kama region
Lychagina E.L., Zhukova V.V.

Key words: Kama region, Neolithic culture, reference site, radiocarbon analysis of the vessels.
The article presents the results of recent excavations at Khutorskaya, a reference site of the Kama Neolithic culture. The article gives a concise overview of the pottery complex and presents the data of typological analysis of the stone inventory. The pottery complex is characterized by chamotte and sand in the molding material, semi-oviform closed vessels, many rims with buildup on the inner surface, outer surface of the vessels thickly decorated with combed stamp, and active use of stepping comb motif. The stone inventory is characterized by flake-and-plate industry. The main categories of tools comprise scrapers, cutting tools, retouched plates, strickles, and points. The recent excavations have shown that plates were widely used for manufacturing tools. Our conclusion is that the site can indeed be considered as a reference site for the developed Neolithic in the Kama region. Radiocarbon analysis shows that the site can be dated to the first half of the 5th millennium BC.

An unusual battle knife from the “Prussia” collection
Prasolov Ya.V.

Key words: East Prussia, burial site of Grebieten, fighting knife, star ornaments, Roman influence.
Among the artifacts from the Konigsbergs “Prussia” Collection, which were found in the years 1886–1888 during the excavations at the burial site of Grebieten, Kr. Fischhausen, East Prussia, is a fighting knife from the warriors grave 32, which upon the results of the grave inventory analysis could be dated to the end of the 4th – beginning of the 5th c. AD. A unique feature of the fighting knife is a sign, stamped onto the surface of both blade sides, which has its closest analogies among the so-called star ornaments. Neither a fighting knife decorated in this manner nor stamping of the star ornaments onto the surface of iron artifacts in general have ever been reported for the region before.

 
 

 

     
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