Metal trade in the Near East in the Early and Middle Bronze Ages
The use of metals and copper-based alloys are one of the distinguishing features of the ancient civilizations in the Near East. The intensive excavations that have been carried out in Syro-Mesopotamia during the last decades allow to discuss the specific details of production and trade in metals from several Near Eastern minefields. The present article gives a brief overview of the ore deposits that were or could have been worked in antiquity, of the testimony of metal production at several Late Eneolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Agesites in Eastern Anatolia and the basins of the Upper and Middle Euphrates, which are located along the trade routes that connected Eastern Anatolia, Northeastern Syria, Mesopotamia and some of the more distant regions, including Northern Caucasus and, probably, Transcaucasia. Especial attention is given to nickel arseniс bronzes, which were widely used in the Early Bronze Age. The author connects the data with such phenomena in the development of Bronze Age Near Eastern society (for instance, of the Uruk civilization) as organized colonization of the lands which had rich natural resources, and centralized state control over the production and distribution of agricultural products.
New materials concerning the settlement of anatomically modern man in Siberia
Buzhilova A.P., Dobrovolskaya M.V., Mednikova M.B.
The skull fragment which is the subject of the present article originates from the so-called western cluster of finds Maly Log II or Pokrovka in Derbinsky bay of the Krasnoyarsk artificial lake (archeologist – Ye.V. Akimova). Direct radiocarbon dating of the sample gives the age of 27740 + 150 BP (OxA-19850), not calibrated. The bone remains of the individual from Pokrovka are represented by a partially destroyed frontal bone. The individual is obviously young, possibly an adolescent. Preliminary study of the bone remains allows to conclude that even over 27 thousand years ago the territory of Siberia was populated by representatives of anatomically modern man.
The “Suebian” from Mordovia. Towards the research of the ethnic and cultural contacts of the Volga Finns in the 3d century AD
The article is a new publication of the detail of a Roman vessel which depicts a “Suebian” and was found at the end of the 19th c. near the village of Kulisheika (Ruzaevsky region of Mordovia Republic). The analogies from Brigetio, Carnuntum, the Suebian prince’s burial at Mušov (Moravia) and the Wielbark burial at Czarnowko (Pomerania), allow to define the find as a detail which was initially part of a Westland-type vessel, which were produced for barbarian nobility in Roman workshops in the 2nd c. AD. The author connects the context of the fi nd with the Central European imports in Finnic burials in the upper reaches of the Moksha and Sura rivers, and in the middle reaches of the Oka, which could be connected with the emergence of the Shapkino-Inyasevo group of sites in the 2nd – 3d c’. The author is of the opinion that the next “western” cultural impulse is the hoard of Roman coins and artifacts of Central European origin that was found near Shilnikovo village in Mordovia, and connects that impulse with the Kashirki-Sedelki group of sites that appeared in the upper reaches of the Don and was similar to Chernyakhov culture. All the above finds should be connected with the changes in the ethnic and cultural situation that took place in the forest-steppe part of west Mid-Volga region and the areas in the upper reaches of the Don.
Towards the 60th anniversary of Ye.N. Nosov
Towards the 60th anniversary of Ye.N. Nosov
Makarov N.A., Gaidukov P.G.
Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2 cemetery – a burial site of the 1st half of the 1st millennium AD in Suzdal Opolye
Makarov N.A., Krasnikova A.M., Zaitseva I.Ye.
The article publishes the fi rst results of archeological investigations at the Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2 ground cemetery in Suzdal Opolye. Fourteen burials, dating to the second half of the 3d – the 5th cc., have been investigated. Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2 cemetery is the furthest northwestern point on the map of Finnic inhumation burials of the 3d – 5th cc. The artifact assemblage is on the whole similar to the assemblages from Ryazan-Oka cemeteries, which are encountered in about 250 km to the south of the excavation site.
Recent research in Hedeby: old materials and new investigations
Von Carnap-Bornheim C., Hilberg V., Kalmring S., Schultze J.
Unique walrus tusk from Rurik’s fortress: traceological analysis
Giria Ye.Yu., Dorofeeva T.S.
The article is devoted to the unique find of a walrus tusk from Rurik’s fortress. The object is outstanding due to both its age and the imagery. The incisions on the tusk, which include a triskelion, allow to conclude that their purpose was protective magic, and to class the find among apotropaia.
Technical markings on the bottoms of clay vessels (based on the materials from Gnezdovo)
The author analyzes the technical marks on the bottoms of vessels from Gnezdovo (10th – the beginning of the 11th c.) and identifies the potter’s wheels that the local population used. Constructions with fixed axis (mushroom-shaped wheel, kick wheels with spokes) and moving axis have been discovered, as well as a miniature hand-powered wheel with spokes.
Textiles from a man’s burial in kurgan Ц-160 at Gnezdovo
The article presents the analysis of textiles from a man’s burial in kurgan Ц-160 of the Gnezdovo archaeological complex. The author used experimental methods to investigate the technological characteristic of the textiles. The resulting data allowed to reconstruct details of the attire and of the funeral rite.
Volobuevo hoard of 10th-century Kufi c dirhams from the area of the Seim river basin in Kursk oblast
Yenukov V.V., Lebedev V.P.
The hoard of Arab dirhams (58 extant), the latest of which were coined in the middle of the 970-s, was discovered in 1947 near the village of Volobuevo in the environs of Kursk. All the coins were cut into circular shape to fi t the weight norms of 0.7 and 1 grams. The analysis of the hoard showed that the coins of the higher weight norm were cut mainly from dirhams of the 930-s – 950-s, and those of the lesser weight norm mainly from dirhams of the 960-s – 970-s. The first group were more often cut from the central part of the dirhams, and those of the second group – from the side.
Pre-Kremlin Moscow: new data on the topography and ceramics of the Danilov settlements, 10th/11th – 14th cc.
Beliaev L.A., Krenke N.A., Shuliaev S.G.
The article gives new data about the dimensions, relief and ceramic chronology of the Danilov settlement, which is the earliest Slavic settlement on the territory of contemporary Moscow. The works carried out in 2003 revealed that the settlement, which was discovered in the 1980-s on the territory of the Danilov monastery (6 km to the south of the Medieval city center), had occupied a quite extensive area of about 500 km along the river Moskva. The new data showed that the settlement had emerged not at the end of the 10th – the 11th cc., as previously assumed, but 50 – 100 years earlier. The investigations also revealed that the fi rst Slavic settlement was centered around the river promontory, where an Early Iron Age settlement had previously existed (second half of the 1st millennium BC – the turn of the present era). The data will be of relevance for clarifying the existence, the dating and the layout of the settlements that will have preceded the prince’s fortress that was built on the Kremlin hill in the 1150-s.
The cultural layer of the kremlin at Pereyaslavl Ryazansky
Bulankin V.M., Zavyalov V.I., Sudakov V.V.
So far, there has been little archeological study of Pereyaslavl Ryazansky. The complex geomorphology of the platform on which the site is located was a significant factor in the formation of the cultural layer. The first archeological study of the site was conducted by V.A. Gorodtsov in 1890. Integrated archeological works at the kremlin were started in 2004. The cultural layer at the excavation site is damp, and the remains of the timber buildings and the organic finds are well-preserved. Analysis of the archeological, engineering and geological data allowed to identify two zones with two different types of cultural strata. The cultural layer in the first zone, which is the above flood-plain terraces, is quite damp. The second zone, which occupies the larger part of the platform, has a dry cultural layer, in which much less organic matter is preserved.
Sarmatian-time kurgan Zhutovsky 27 in the Volga-Don interstream region
Skripkin A.S., Shinkar’ O.A.
The materials from kurgan Zhutovsky 27, which was excavated by V.P. Shilov’s expedition in 1964, are quite often used in Sarmatian studies. Nonetheless, the present article is the first comprehensive publication of the materials from thе site. The article gives detailed description of the funeral complexes of the kurgan, and substantiates the dating. The main burial in the kurgan appears to have belonged to the Sauromatian culture. Of especial interest is burial 4, that of a noble warrior. It is connected with the finding of horse harness, represented by silver phalerae. Burial 4 and the phalerae are dated to the 2nd–1st cc. BC. In our opinion, the complex will have belonged to Aorsian nobility. The time and the territory are those indicated for the Aorsi by Strabo.
A burial complex of the beginning of the 3d century AD, Kislovodsk basin
The article publishes new materials from the catacomb burial investigated in 2008. The objects discovered in the catacomb allow to date it to the beginning of the 3d c. AD. Some of the cult objects (an anthropomorphic amulet and the clay ball and cylinder which narrows towards the middle) have no analogies in Central Ciscaucasian burials and are unique. In the conclusion, the article considers the question of whether the burial belongs to the local population of the Kislovodsk basin, who were influenced by the Alanic tribes on the plain.
History of Science
The Group for archaic agriculture studies in the State Academy for the History of Material Culture: the 1930-s
Sveshnikov A.V., Sveshnikova O.S.
Plate temple rings and pendants in the Lower Don and the Ciscaucasia (terminal stage of the Bronze Age)
Daggers from northwestern Ciscaucasia of the 8th – 10th cc.
Glazed tiles from a monk’s grave in Moscow’s Sretensky Monastery (Monastery of the Visitation)
Critics and Bibliography
A.I. Martynov. Archeology. M., 2005
Akhundov T.I., Makhmudova V.A. The Southern Caucasus in Caucasus-Near Asia ethnic and cultural processes of the 4th millennium BC. Baku, 2008
Buddhist sites in the environs of Kabul
Maslennikov A.A. Rural sanctuaries of the European Bosporus. Tula, 2007
O.D. Mochalov. Ceramics from burial sites in the forest-steppe of the Volga-Urals interstream area. Samara, 2008
Archaeology in Southeast Asia: From Homo Erectus to the Living Traditions. Bougon, 2008
Germania–Sarmatia. Antiquities of Central and Eastern Europe in the epoch of Roman influence and the Great Migration. Kaliningrad, 2008
Fourth international conference “Dialog of the urban and steppe cultures in Eurasia”, in commemoration of G.A. Fedorov-Davydov
Yablonsky L.T., Fomichev N.M., Maslovsky A.N.